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Supporting hard drives and other storage devices

QuestionAnswer
NAND flash memory The type of memory used in solid-state drives (SSD). NAND stands for “Not AND” and refers to the LOGIC used when storing a one or zero in the GRID of rows and columns on the memory chip.
What is the lifespan of an SSD based on? The number of write operations
What three types of technologies are used inside hard drives? Solid State (SSD), magnetic, hybrid
At what 3 speeds (in RPM) might the spinle inside a hard drive rotate? 5400, 7200, 10,000
When the OS addresses the sectors on a hard drive as one long list of sequential sectors, what is this technology called? LBA (logical block addressing) - type of addressing used by the HD firmware, UEFI/BIOS, and the OS
S.M.A.R.T Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology - Used by UEFI/BIOS to predict when drive is likely to fail. Supported by SSD, and magnetic drives. Can be enabled/disabled in UEFI/BIOS
What is IDE? Integrated Drive Electronics - AKA: PATA. Used with older drives
How many pins do IDE connectors have? 40
SATA I data transfer rate 1.5 GB/sec
SATA II data transfer rate 3 GB/sec
SATA III data transfer rate 6 GB/sec
A SATA drive connects to one internal SATA connector on the motherboard by way of a _____-pin SATA data cable and uses a _____-pin SATA power connector (see Figure 6-6) 7; 15
What's the max length of an eSATA cable? 2 meters
external SATA A standard for external drives based on SATA that uses a special external shielded SATA cable up to 2 meters long
Where can you find the information about the standards that the motherboard supports when selecting a compatible hard drive? In the UEFI/BIOS setup screen
Autodetection A feature of UEFI/BIOS that detects a new drive and automatically selects the correct drive capacity and configuration, including the best possible standard supported by both the hard drive and the motherboard
Factors to consider when purchasing a hard drive capacity, spindle speed, interface standard, cache or buffer size
What is the most common spindle speed of a hard drive? 7200 RPM
Buffer size range for a hard drive (range) 2 MB to 128 MB
When would you want to consider using a SATA controller card? (1) the motherboard drive connectors are not functioning, or (2) the motherboard does not support a fast SATA standard that your hard drives use
What might you use to connect a power supply to a hard drive? 15-pin SATA or 4-pin Molex
What's the typical size for a laptop hard drive? 2.5 or 1.8 inches wide
What can you use to transfer data from an old drive to a new, upgraded drive in a LAPTOP? A USB-to-SATA converter
JBOD Spanning (just a bunch of disks). Uses 2 hard drives to hold a single Windows volume. Writes to 1st drive, then the 2nd when the first is full
RAID 0 Sriped. Writes to the disks evenly across all disks. Improved performance. Preferred to spanning.
RAID 1 Mirrored volume. Duplicates data on one drive to another. Used for fault tolerance.
RAID 5 Striped, with parity checking. If one drive fails, the data on the failed drive is re-created using parity information. Makes better use of volume capacity. Increased performance AND fault tolerance
RAID 10 Striped & Mirrored. Data is striped across pairs of mirrored disks. Needs at least 4 disks. Best redundancy and performance
How is RAID configured? Hardware or software level. Best practice (and faster) is hardware level
When configuring a RAID 5 (parity) with 3 Disks, what are the options for Strip size? 32/64/128 KB
Things to remember when installing a hard drive Autodetect is enabled - cables are securely seated - memory modules are securely seated (may receive POST beeps if not)
How is a NAS connected? USB or eSATA port
What is WORM write once and read many. available on some tape drives and tape catridges.
Max capacity for current magnetic tapes 185 TB
What is the size of a full-sized data cartridge? 4 x 6 x 5/8"
What is the size of a tape minicartridge? What sized drive bay do they fit into? 3-1/4 x 2-1/2 x 3/5" .... 3-inch drive bay
What is the storage capacity of a DDS-5 (native/compressed) 36/72 GB
DDS digital data storage - a common type of tape catridge
LTO Linear tape open
What is the storage capacity of LTO Ultrium 5 (native/compressed) 1.5/3.0 TB
What is the storage capacity of DLT-4 (native/compressed)? 40/80 GB
What is the storage capacity of SDLT (native/compressed)? 300/600 GB
What is the storage capacity of S-AIT (advanced intelligent tape) 1.3 TB compressed
What is the capacity of SLR140? (native/compressed) 70/140 GB
NTFS new technology file system
FAT file allocation table
What type of file system do SD & SDHC cards use? FAT
What type of file system does SDXC cards use? exFAT
How do you view what type of file system a drive is using? Go to file explorer, right-click on the drive and select properties
What type of drives use the exFAT file system? large-capacity USB flash drives, memory cards, some external hard drives
What type of port might an external drive use? eSATA, FireWire, USB
How many times can you write to a CD-R disc once
DVD-R DL DVD recordable in dual layers. double storage to 8.5 GB on one surface
What type of interface does an internal optical drive use? SATA
List 3 types of solid-state storage SSD hard drives, USB flash drives, memory cards
Capacity of USB flash drives 128 MB to 1 TB
What type of file system do flash drives use? FAT (for small capacity) or exFAT (for large-capacity)
SD standards 1.x, 2.x (SDHC), and 3.x (SDXC)
SD card physical sizes (and max capacities) Full size/Mini/Micro - 2GB/32GB/2TB (1.x/2.x/3.x)
Other flash memory cards Sony Memory Stick Pro - Compact Flash (CF) - MultiMediaCard (MMC - slower than SD) - eMMC (internal storage for phones, etc) - Memory Stick (Sony cameras and camcorders) - xD-Picture Card (2 GB)
Troubleshooting - slow performance hard drive problem: fragmentation
Can you optimize an SSD drive in Windows 7? No
What are the error messages UEFI/BIOS might display if it cannot find a hard drive at POST? No boot device available - Hard drive not found - OS not found - read/write failure - fixed disk error - invalid boot disk - inaccessible boot device - RAID not found - RAID stops working - numeric error codes in the 1200s or 10400s, Drive not rcognized
What other error message might you see if UEFI/BIOS cannot find a hard drive? S.M.A.R.T. errors during the boot
Reasons UEFI might not be able to access the drive drive, data cable, electrical system, mobo, loose connection
Page for Hard drive trouble shooting during the boot 269 - 272
S.M.A.R.T. self-monitoring analysis and reporting technology a self-monitoring technology whereby the UEFI/BIOS monitors the health of the hard drive and warns of an impending failure
What does SMART measure? drive performance, temperature, number of write operations
SLR scalable linear recording (versions 1-140)
Another name for DDS-5 DAT72
file system the overall structure the OS uses to name, store, and organize files on a drive
Max capacity of a BD double-side, dual layer 50 GB
Max capacity of a DVD double-side, dual layer (DVD-18) 15.9 GB
How many rewrites can a DVD-RAM handle? 100,000 (used in camcorders and set-top boxes)
DVD-R capacity 4.7 GB
S-AIT Super advanced intelligent tape
Travan (TR-1 through TR-7) Max for TR-7 20/40 GB
BCD boot configuration data
command prompt used to rebuild the BCD bootrec /RebuildBCD
eMMC embedded MMC
MMC multimedia card
command line utility used to repair the boot sector bootrec /FixBoot
command used to fix problems with the MBR program that is needed to start Windows bootrec /FixMBR
command used to make sure the hard drive does not have bad sectors that can corrupt the file system chkdsk
Startup Repair utility that restores many of the Windows files needed for a successful boot (8/7/Vista)
low-level formatting a process usually performed at the factory that electronically creates the hard drive tracks and sectors, and tests for bad spots on the disk surface
high-level formatting the type of formatting that Windows does after a drive is installed in a computer
command used to erase hard drive partitions diskpart
commands used to erase partition 1 on disk 0 list disk - select disk 0 - list partition - select partition 1 - clean
command used to repair the BCD bootrec /RebuildBCD
Universal file system used by blu-ray
most popular memory cards SD
a small database that holds parameters Windows needs for a successful boot (boot configuration data) BCD
Partitioning The process by which sector markings are defined on a disk
Created by: Dessertine