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Chapter 12

The Code of Life

What is DNA? Hereditary material found in the nucleus.
What is a mutation? A change in the hereditary material of an organism.
What is a Genetic disorder? An abnormal condition that an organism can inherit.
What is DNA replication? The process of a DNA molecule making a copy of itself.
What is protein synthesis? The production of proteins in the cell.
What is base sequence? The order of base pairs along a gene.
What is a double helix? The shape of the DNA.
Which bases pair with each other? Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T) and Cytosine (C) pairs with Guanine (G).
Why does DNA replication? It ensures that each daughter cell has an exact copy of the DNA from the parent cell.
Which of type of mutation causes sickle cell anemia? Substitution.
What is RNA? A shorter version of DNA that a single strand.
What is the function of the ribosome? It reads the codons and arranges the amino acids.
What causes mutations? exposure to chemicals or other environmental conditions.
Mutations can be harmful, helpful or neutral. They may or may not cause a change in protein shape and function. True.
What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid
An error in which process could result in the type of mutation that causes Down's Syndrome? Meiosis.
What are the backbone of DNA made of? Deoxyribose (sugar) and phosphate.
Name the 3 main scientists that contributed to the discovery of DNA. James Watson, Francis Crick, and Rosalind Franklin.
What is the procedure that doctors use to determine if a baby has a genetic disorder? Amnioscentesis.
When can mutations happen? Anytime in any cell or gene.
What are Amino Acids? The building blocks of protein.
What is the result of a genetic disorder? When a mutation causes the product of a single gene to be altered or missing.
What can too many or not enough chromosomes cause? Down's Syndrome.
Where is DNA stored? In the Nucleus.
What are the effects of Down's Syndrome? Mental and physical limitations.
When a base is changed in the sequence to another base? Substitution.
What is it called when a base is added to a codon? Insertion.
What is it called when a base is removed from a codon? Deletion.
What does passing on genetic mutation require? both parents have the recessive allele.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is found in the_____. Inside the nucleus.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is found in the ____. In the cytoplasm.
How many bases are in one codon? Three
Does a codon have to be exact? Yes
When DNA replicates there is a partial unwinding of the double helix. What happens to the base pairs? They seperate
When DNA replicates how are the resulting DNA molecules built? The two resulting DNA molecules are each built from one strand of the original molecule
RNA is different from DNA because it consists of a single strand and instead of thymine (T), RNA has the base uracil (U). True
Created by: doakes27