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AP Literature/ FOP

The Fundamentals Of Poetry

Pastoral A poem/ play/ story celebrating or idealizing the simple life of shepherds. Can also refer to an artistic work that idealizes rural life.
Pun Humorous play on words that have several meaning. Words that sound the same but have different meanings.
Pathos Quality of literature works/ passage's that appeal to the readers views and emotions. Most commonly, pity, compassion, and sympathy.
Foot A unit of a meter. A metrical foot can have two or three syllables. It consists of generally of one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables. Lines are classified according to the number of feet in a line.
Meter The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry. In identifying the meter of a line or verse, the type and number of feet or considered
Archetype A character, situation, or symbol that is familiar to people from all culture because it occurs frequently in literature, myth, religion, or folklore.
Satire The use of humor to ridicule and expose the failings of society, individuals, and institutions, often in the hope change and reform are possible.
Anachronism An element in a story that is out of its time frame; sometimes used to create a humorous or jarring effect, but sometimes the result of poor research on the authors part.
Anecdote A short and often personal story used to emphasize a point or a theme, or to inject humor.
Aphorism A tense statement that expresses a general truth or moral principle.
Conceit A far-fetched comparison between two seemingly unlike things. An extended metaphor that gains appeal from its unusual or extraordinary comparison.
Connotation Associations a words calls to mind. What a word suggests beyond it basic definition.
Enjambment In poetry, running over a sentence from one verse or stanza into the next without stopping at the end of the first one.
Imagery Anything that affects or appeals to the readers senses.
Narrative Poem A poem that tells a story
Parable A short story illustrating a moral or religious lesson.
Parody A comical imitation of a serious piece with the intent to ridicule the authors work.
Allusion Reference in literature or in art to previous literature, history, mythology, current events, or the bible.
Rhymed Verse Consists of a verse with end rhyme and usually with a regular meter.
Blank Verse Consists of lines with iambic pentameter without end rhyme.
Free Verse Consists of lines that do not have regular meter and do not contain rhyme.
Rhyme Similarity of likeness of sound between two words.
Slant Rhyme Imperfect or incomplete correspondence of end of syllable sounds.
Repetition The reiteration of a word or phrase with a poem.
Refrain The repetition of one or more phrases or lines at intervals in a poem, usually at the end of a stanza. Often takes form of a chorus.
Consonance The repetition of constant sounds within a line of verse. It is similar to alliteration except it does not limit to the first letter of the word.
Assonance The similarity or repetition of a vowel sound in two or more words.
Onomatopoeia The use of the word to represent or imitate natural sounds.
Alliteration The repetition of the initial letter or sound in two or more words in a line of verse.
Rhyme Scheme It is the pattern or sequence in which the rhyme occurs. The first sound is represented by the letter [a] then continues onwards.
Masculine Rhyme Occurs when the syllable of a word rhymes with another.
Feminine Rhyme Occurs when the last two syllables of a word rhyme with another.
Triple Rhyme Occurs when the last three syllables of a word rhyme with another.
Position of Rhyme - End Consists of the similarity occurring at the end of two or more line of verse.
Position of Rhyme - Internal Consists of the similarity occurring between two or more words in the same line of verse.
Lyric The most widely used type of poem. So diverse that a rigid definition is impossible. Common factors are: *Limited Length, *Intensely Subjective, *Personal Expression of Personal Emotion, *Highly imaginative, *Regular Rhyme Scheme.
Elegy Usually a poem that mourns the death of an individual, the absence of something deeply loved, or the transcience of mankind.
Villanelle Consists of five tercets and a quatrain in which the first and third lines of the opening tercet recur alternately at the end of the other tercets and together as the last two line of the quatrain.
English/ Shakespeare Sonnet Composed of three quatrains and a concluding couplet. Riming [ a - b - a - b c - d - c - d e - f - e - f g - g ] The three quatrains can represent three examples and the couplet a conclusion.
Petrarchan/ Italian Sonnet Divided usually between eight lines called the OCTAVE, using two rimes arranged [ a - b - b - a - a - b - b - a ] and six lines called the SESTET, using any arrangement of either two or three rimes. Octave may be a situation and the Sestet a comment.
Sonnet A fourteen- line stanza form consisting of iambic pentameter lines.
Spenserian Stanza A nine-line stanza consisting of eight iambic pentameter lines followed by an Alexandrine, a line of iambic hexameter. The rhyme scheme is [a - b - a - b - b - c - b - c - c].
Ottava Rima Consists of eight pentameter lines with rhyme scheme of [ a - b - a - b - a - b - c - c ]. Its a form that was borrowed from the Italians.
Rime Royal A stanza consisting of seven lines in iambic pentameter rhyming, [ a - b - a - b - b - c - c].
Ballad Stanza Consists of four lines with a rhyme scheme of a - b - c - b. The first and third lines are tetrameter and the second and fourth are trimeter.
Limerick A five-line nonsense poem with an anapaestic meter. The rhyme usually follows a - a - b - b - a. The first, second and fifth lines have three stresses. The third and fourth only have two.
Terza Rima A three line stanza form with an interlaced or interwoven rhyme scheme Usually iambic pentameter. Example [ a - b - a b - c - b c - d - c d - e - d etc.]
Heroic couplet Consist of two successive rhyming versus that contain a complete thought within the two lines. Usually iambic pentameter lines.
Ode An exalted, complex, rapturous lyric poem written about a dignified, lofty subject.
A Stanza A division of a poem based on the thought or form. When based on form they are marked by their rhyme scheme. They are known by the number of lines they contain. COUPLET - 2 / TRIPLET - 3 / QUATRAIN - 4 / SESTET - 5 / SEPTET - 7 / OCTAVE - 8.
Penta Meter Five-Foot Line Ex. What oft was though, but ne'er so well express'd The bookful blockhead, ignorantly read, With loads of learned lumber in his head.
Tetra Meter Four-Foot Line Ex. The hill, the meadows, and the lakes, Enchant not for their own sweet sakes.
Tri Meter Three-Foot Line Ex. The idle life I lead Is like a pleasant sleep, Where in I rest and head The dreams the by me sweep.
Di Meter Two-Foot Line Ex. Workers earn it, Spendthrifts burn it, Banker lend it, Women spend it, I could use it.
Mono Meter One-Foot Line Ex. Thus i, Pass by, And die.
Octo Meter Eight-Foot Line Ex. Once upon a mid-night dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary.
Hexa Meter Six-Foot Line Ex. If hunger, proverbs say, allures the wolf from wood, Much more the bird must dare a dash at something good.
Simile A direct or explicit comparison between two usually unrelated things, indication a similarity between some attribute found in both things..
Metaphor A implied comparison between two usually unrelated things, indication a likeness or analogy between attributes found in both things.
Personification Giving human characteristics to inanimate objects, ideas, or animals.
Synecdoche The technique of mentioning a part of something to represent a whole.
Metonymy The substitution of a word to name an object for another word that is closely associated with.
Symbol A word or an image that signifies something other than what it literally represents.
Allegory A narrative or description having a second meaning beneath the surface.
Overstatement The exaggeration for the sake of emphasis and is not to be taken literally.
Understatment Consists of saying less than one means. Or saying what one means with less force then the situation deserves.
Antithesis The balancing or contrasting of one term against another.
Apostrophe The addressing of someone or something usually not present, as though they are present.
Dramatic Irony A device by which the author implies a different meaning from that intended by the speaker in a literary work, An incongruity or discrepancy between what a character says or things and what the reader knows to be true.
Irony of Situation A situation in which there is an incongruity between actual circumstances and those that would seem appropriate or between what is anticipated and what actually comes to pass.
Verbal Irony A figure of speech in which what is meant is the opposite of what is said.
Oxymoron A figure of speech that combines two contradictory words placed side by side.
Paradox A statement or situation containing apparently contradictory or incompatible elements.
Dactylic This foot contains three syllables with the stress on the first syllable.
Spondaic This foot consists of two stressed syllables. Compound words are examples of this. Used for variation
Pyrrhic This foot consists of two unstressed syllables. It is often found interspersed with other feet. This type of foot it rare.
Anapestic This foot consists of three syllables with the stress on the last syllable.
Trochaic This foot consists of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable.
Iambic A two-syllable foot with the stress on the second syllable.
Syntax The arrangement - ordering, grouping, and placement - of words within a sentence. The study of the way the sequences of words are ordered into phrases, clauses, and sentences,
Created by: msfindlay



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