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OBC1 Innovation Read

Reading Tearms

Mutuality of Interest Balancing individual and organizational interests through win-win cooperation.
What are the nine generic influence tactics? Rational Persuasion, Inspirational appeals, consultation, Ingratiation, personal appeals, exchange, coalition tactics, pressure, and legitimating tactics.
Rational Persuasion Trying to convince someone with reason logic, or facts.
Inspirational appeals trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others' emotions, ideas, or values.
Consultation Getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes.
Ingratiation Getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request; being friendly, helpful, and using praise or flattery.
Personal appeals Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request.
Exchange Making express or implied promises and trading favors.
Coalition tactics Getting others to support your effort to persuade someone.
Pressure Demanding compliance or using intimidation or threats.
Legitimating tactics Basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or policies, or express or implied support from superiors.
What are three possible influence outcomes? Commitment, Compliance, or Resistance.
Commitment Your friend enthusiastically agrees and will demonstrate initiative and persistence while completing the assignment.
Compliance Your friend grudgingly complies and will need prodding to satisfy minimum requirements.
Resistance Your friend will say no, make excuses, stall, or put up an argument.
What is the Key to selling? understand where the other person is coming from—rather than to assume that your boss is a complete jerk
social power Ability to get things done with human, informational, and material resources.
What are the two main types of power? Socialized and personalized power
Socialized Power Directed at helping others.
Personalized Power Directed at helping oneself.
What are the five bases of power? Reward, Coercive, Legitimate, Expert, and Referent power.
Reward power Obtaining compliance with promised or actual rewards.
Coercive power Obtaining compliance through threatened or actual punishment.
Legitimate power Obtaining compliance through formal authority.
Expert power Obtaining compliance through one’s knowledge or information.
Referent power Obtaining compliance through charisma or personal attraction.
Empowerment Sharing varying degrees of power with lower-level employees to tap their full potential.
Participative management employees play a direct role in (1) setting goals, (2) making decisions, (3) solving problems, and (4) making changes in the organization.
Delegation Granting decision-making authority to people at lower levels
Personal initiative Going beyond formal job requirements and being an active self-starter.
Organizational politics Intentional enhancement of self-interest.
what are the five common sources of uncertainty? Unclear objectives, Vague performance measures, Ill-defined decision process, Strong individual or group competition, and any type of change.
What are the 3 levels of political action? Network, Coalition, and Individual Levels.
Network Level Cooperative pursuit of general self-interests
Coalition level Cooperative pursuit of group interests in specific issues
Individual Level Individual pursuit of general self-interests
Coalition Temporary groupings of people who actively pursue a single issue
What are the 8 political tactics? 1. Attacking or blaming others, Using information as a political tool, reating a favorable image. (impression management.),Developing a base of support, Praising others (ingratiation), Forming power coalitions with strong allies, Associating with influent
Attacking or blaming others Used to avoid or minimize association with failure. Reactive when scapegoating is involved. Proactive when goal is to reduce competition for limited resources.
Using information as a political tool Involves the purposeful withholding or distortion of information. Obscuring an unfavorable situation by overwhelming superiors with inforation.
Creating a favorable image (Impression Management) Dressing/Grooming for success. Adhering to organizational norms and drawing attention to one's successes and influence. Taking credit for theres' accomplishments.
Developing a base of support Getting prior support for a decision. Building others' commitment to a decision through participation.
Praising others (ingratiation) Making influential people feel good ("apple polishing")
Forming power coalitions with strong allies Teaming up with powerful people who can get results
Associating with influential people Building a support network both inside and outside the organization
Building obligations (Reciprocity) Creating social debts ("I did you a favor, so you owe me a favor")
Impression management Getting others to see us in a certain manner.
What are four motives for poor impression? Avoidance, Obtain concrete rewards, Exit, Power.
Avoidance Employee seeks to avoid additional work, stress, burnout, or an unwanted transfer or promotion.
Obtain concrete rewards Employee seeks to obtain a pay raise or a desired transfer, promotion, or demotion.
Exit Employee seeks to get laid off, fired, or suspended, and perhaps also to collect unemployment or workers’ compensation.
Power Employee seeks to control, manipulate, or intimidate others, get revenge, or make someone else look bad.
what are 5 unfavorable upward impression management tactics? Decreasing performance, Not working to potential, Withdrawing, Displaying a bad attitude, Broadcasting limitations.
Decreasing performance restricting productivity, making more mistakes than usual, lowering quality, neglecting tasks.
Not working to potential pretending ignorance, having unused capabilities.
Withdrawing being tardy, taking excessive breaks, faking illness.
Displaying a bad attitude complaining, getting upset and angry, acting strangely, not getting along with coworkers.
Broadcasting limitations letting coworkers know about one’s physical problems and mistakes, both verbally and non-verbally.
External forces for change Originate outside the organization.
Internal forces for change Originate inside the organization.
Benchmarking Process by which a company compares its performance with that of high-performing organizations.
Mission statement Summarizes “why” an organization exists.
Target elements of change Components of an organization that may be changed.
Organization development A set of techniques or tools used to implement planned organizational change.
Change agent Individual who is a catalyst in helping organizations to implement change.
Resistance to change Emotional/behavioral response to real or imagined work changes.
Resilience to change Composite personal characteristic reflecting high self-esteem, optimism, and an internal locus of control.
Fight-or-flight response To either confront stressors or try to avoid them.
Stress Behavioral, physical, or psychological response to stressors.
Eustress Stress that is good or produces a positive outcome.
Stressors Environmental factors that produce stress.
Primary appraisal Determining whether a stressor is irrelevant, positive, or stressful.
Secondary appraisal Assessing what might and can be done to reduce stress.
Control strategy Coping strategy that directly confronts or solves problems.
Escape strategy Coping strategy that avoids or ignores stressors and problems.
Symptom management strategy Coping strategy that focuses on reducing the symptoms of stress.
Social support Amount of helpfulness derived from social relationships.
Hardiness Personality characteristic that neutralizes stress.
Type A behavior pattern Aggressively involved in a chronic, determined struggle to accomplish more in less time.
Created by: Cbunksta



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