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Business 8&9

Business 115 chapters 8&9 Vocabulary terms

Economies of Scale Situation where companies can reduce production costs if they can purchase materials in bulk
Hierachy System where one person is at the top and a ranked ordering from top down
Chain of Command line of authority from top of heirchy to the lowest level
Bureaucracy organization with many layers of managers that set rules and regulations
Centralized Authority structure when decision making is maintained at top level at companys headquarters
Decentralized Authority when decision making authority is to lower-level managers at local conditions
Span Control Optimum number of subordinates a manager supervises or should supervise
Tall organization structure The pyramidal organization chart would be quite tall with various levels of managment
Flat organization structure few layers of managment and broad span control
Departmentalization The dividing of organizational functions
Line organization direct 2 way lines of responsibility, authority, and comunication. Running from top to bottom.
Line personnel Employees who are part of a chain of command, resposible for acheiving goals.
Matrix Organization Specialists from different parts brought together to work on specific projects but remain part of lin-and-staff structure
Cross-Functional Self Managed Teams Groups from diff departments working together on a long term basis.
Networking Using communications technology to link organizations on common objectives.
Real time The present moment
Transparency A concept of companies working so close together that electronic information is shared as if they were one company
Virtual Corporation Temporary networked organization made up of replaceable firms that join and leave as needed.
Benchmarking Comparing an organizations, practices, products, and processes against the worlds best.
Core Competencies functions that the organization can do as well of better then any in the world.
Restructuring Redesigning an organization for more effectivness
Inverted Organization Organization that has contact people at the top and the chief executive officer at the bottom.
Organizational Culture Widely shared values that provide unity to achieve goals.
Formal Organization Details lines of authority,and position that is, the structure shown on charts.
Informal Organization relationships and lines of authority develops spontaneously as employees meet and form power centers
Form Utillity The value added by the creation offinished goods and services.
process manufacturing part of the production process that physically or chemically changes materials
assembly process part of the production process that puts together components
continuos process production process in which long productions runs turn good over time.
intermittent process process in which the production run is short and the machines are changed frequently to make different products
Computer-aided design (CAD) use of computers in the design of products
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) use of computer in manufacturing products
computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) Uniting CAD and CAM
flexible manufacturing designing machines to do mulitiple tasks to produse variety of products
Lean Manufacturing Production of goods using less of everything compared to mass production
Mass Customization Tailoring products to meet the needs of individual costomers.
facility location process of selecting a geographic location for a companys operations
facility layout physical arrangement of resources in the production process
Just -in-time minimum inventory krpt in store and other delivered in time to replace
purchasing searches for quality resources, finds best supliers, and negotiates price
Quality constantly producing errors before and after delivery to the costomer
six sigma quality measure that allows only 3.4 defects per million opportunities
Statisatical Quality Control (SQC) continuesly moniter all phases of the production process
Created by: astefanik