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CCNA - Networking

QuestionAnswer
What device is used to separate subnets? a router
What are the three default subnet masks? 255.0.0.0 (Class A)
What is the first octet range for Class A networks? 1-127
What is the first octet range for Class B networks? 129-191
What is the first octet range for class C networks? 192-223
What is the maximum number of Class A networks available? 127
What is the maximum number of Class B networks available? 16
What is the maximum number of Class C networks available? 2
What three address ranges are reserved for private networks? 10.0.0.0/8
What standard defines Ethernet? IEEE 802.3
Who originally develeoped Ehthernet? Digital
What does Ethernet do when it detects a collision waits a random period of time and resends
When not using auto-detect how should a NIC be configured when connected to a hub?
What media access control method does Ethernet use? Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
What is the maximum packet size for Ethernet? 1518 bytes
What standard defines Fast Ethernet? 802.3u
What is the maximum speed of Fast Ethernet? 100 Mbps
What cable type is required for 10BaseT? Cat3
What are the three types of Fast Ethernet? 100BaseTX
What cable type does 100BaseTX require? Cat5
What cable type does 100BaseFX require? fiber optic
What cable type does 100BaseT4 require? Cat3 (uses 2 extra wires)
What standard defines Gigabit Ethernet? IEEE 802.3z
What is the 5-4-3 rule? Ethernet can support a maximum of 5 segments connected by 4 repeaters with nodes on 3 segments
What is a bridge? a Layer 2 device that connects different or same-type networks
Does a bridge allow broadcasts? yes
Does a bridge forward traffic? not if the destination segment is the same as the originating segment
How much latency does a bridge introduce? 20-30%
What do gateways do? enable communications between different protocols
What are non-root ports on non-root bridges considered? nondesignated- they neither send nor receive traffic
What mode are nondesignated ports in? blocking mode- they neither send nor receive traffic
What is the purpose of the Data Link layer? to provide reliable transfer of data across a physical network link
What layer is responsible for sequencing data frames? Data Link layer
What layer is responsible for flow control? the Data Link layer
What are the two parts of a MAC address? 24-bit Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) and 24-bit vendor-supplied number
What is another name for a MAC address? a burned-in address (BIA)
How long is an IPX address? 80 bits (10 bytes)
What are the two parts of an IPX address? 4-byte network address and 6-byte node address (MAC address)
What are the 3 methods of mapping network addresses to MAC addresses? ARP
What does an IP host do when it needs to find the MAC address of a local host? it sends an ARP request
What layer does the Hello protocol operate at? the Network layer
How does the Hello protocol work? hosts periodically broadcast their MAC address
How does predictable MAC addressing work? the MAC address of the host is embedded in the network address
What three protocols use predictable MAC addressing? Xerox Network Service (XNS)
What two types of packets do routers send? data packets and route update packets
What layer(s) can alter data? only the Presentation layer
What layer is responsible for keeping different appliation's data separate? the Session layer
What specification defines the MAC sublayer? IEEE 802.3
What does the MAC sublayer define? how packets are placed on the media
What specification defines the LLC sublayer? IEEE 802.2
What does the LLC sublayer do? identifies network-layer protocols and encapsulates them
What layer does Data Communicaton Equipment (DCE) operate at? the Physical layer
What layer does Data Terminal Equipment operate at? the Physical layer
What layer do Channel Service Units/Data Service Units (CSU/DSU's) operate at? the Physical layer
Where is Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) usually located? at the service provider
Where is Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) usually located? at the client end
What are Client Service Units/Data Service Units (CSU/DSU's) used for? accessing DTE services
What are three reasons for using a layered model? ease of troubleshooting; standard interface; and industry specialization
How long are IPX addresses? 80 bits (10 bytes)
What comprises an IPX address? 1st 4 bytes: network address; rest: node address (MAC address)
What does each layer of the OSI model use to encapsulate data? Protocol Data Units (PDU's)
What does the Transport layer use as a PDU? segments
What does the Network layer use as a PDU? packets (datagrams)
What does the Data Link layer use as a PDU? frames
What does the Physical layer use as a PDU? bits
What are the 4 steps in establishing a connection-oriented session? synchronize; negotiate connection; synchronize; and acknowledge
What are the 3 phases in a connection-oriented session? call setup (connection establishment); data transfer; and call termination
What are the 4 advantages of LAN segmentation? security; broadcast control; performance; and scalability
Why is Layer 2 switching considered hardware-based bridging? it uses application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC's)
What are the 2 advantages of application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC's)? high speed and low latency
What OSI layer are filter tables part of? layer 2 (Data Link)
How are filter tables created? by reading the source hardware address of each frame that passes through
What does transparent bridging refer to? layer 2 devices only pass frames to segments that contain destination addresses
What does a layer 2 device do with a frame with an unfamiliar hardware address? forwards it to all connected segments
Why is it possible for all segments on a switch to transmit at once but not on a hub?
How must all Class A IP addresses start? with a binary 0
How must all Class B IP addresses start? with a binary 10
How must all Class C IP addresses start? with a binary 110
What is the formula for the number of valid subnets created by a given subnet mask? 2? - 2
What is the formula for the number of valid hosts per subnet created by a given subnet mask? 2? - 2
What is the formula for the address octet of the first valid subnet created by a given subnet mask? 256 - last octet of subnet mask
What are the four layers of the DoD model? Process/Application
What OSI layer(s) does the Process/Application layer map to? Application
What OSI layer(s) does the Host-to-Host layer map to? the Transport layer
What OSI layer(s) does the Internet layer map to? the Network layer
What OSI layer(s) does the Network Access layer map to? the Data Link and Physical layers
What DoD layer does bootP work at? the Internet layer
What DoD layer does ICMP work at? the Internet layer
What does Cisco use ICMP for? sending updates to routers about route or packet problems
What does a router do if it can't forward a datagram? it sends a "destination unreachable" message to the sender via ICMP
What does a router do if its memory buffer is full? sends a "buffer full" message to senders via ICMP
What happens if a datagram reaches its hop limit? the last router to receive it deletes it and sends an obituary message via ICMP
What protocol does ping use? ICMP
What is a core router? A core router is a router that switches packets at optimum speed on the backbone of a network.
What is route summarization? Route summarization is the process of using a single network address and mask (or prefix) to represent multiple networks or subnetworks.
What is route redistribution? Route redistribution is the process of importing routes learned from one routing protocol into a different routing protocol or separate routing process.
What is full mesh? Full mesh is a network in which every router maintains a direct connection to every other router.
What Cisco series routers are used at the access layer? The access layer uses the 2600
What is scalability? Scalability is the capability to grow and adapt without major redesign or reinstallation.
What does FIFO stand for? FIFO stands for first in
What does DDR stand for? Dial on demand routing.
What is custom queuing? Custom queuing is a method of queuing that is used to guarantee bandwidth for traffic by assigning queue space to each protocol.
What is CEF (Cisco Express Forwarding)? Cisco Express Forwarding is a switching mode on a Cisco router that uses a Forwarding Information Base (FIB) lookup table that contains all known routes that exist in the routing table. CEF eliminates route cache maintenance and can switch traffic more ef
What is WFQ (weighted fair queuing)? WFQ (Weighted fair queuing) is a queuing method that prioritizes interactive traffic over file transfers to ensure satisfactory response time for common user applications.
What is compression? Compression is the running of a data set through an algorithm that reduces the space required to store the data set or the bandwidth required to transmit the data set.the
What is priority queuing? Priority queuing is a queuing strategy in which frames in an interface output queue are prioritized based on various characteristics
What is unequal-cost load balancing? Unequal-cost load balancing is the distribution of traffic load across multiple links that do not have the same cost or metric value.
What is a policy? A policy is an approach to handling certain kinds of traffic
What is an Access router? An Access router is a router that provides network access to LAN hosts and remote users.
What is DDR (Dial-on-demand routing)? Dial-on-demand routing is a technique by which a router can dynamically initiate and close circuit switched sessions as transmitting end stations need them.
What does CEF stand for? Cisco Express Forwarding
What is a three-layer network design model? A three-layer network design model is a hierarchical model for scalable network design that consists of core
What is fast switching? Fast switching is a switching mode on a Cisco router that uses a high-speed route cache after an initial routing table lookup.
What is a distribution router? A distribution router is a router that separates the access layer and core layer by establishing routing and security policies.
What is equal-cost load balancing? Equal-cost load balancing is distribution of traffic load across multiple links of the same cost or metric value.
What is FIFO (first in first out)queuing?
What is queuing? Queuing is the process that the router uses to schedule packets for transmission during periods of congestion.
What Cisco series routers are used at the distribution layer? The distribution layer uses the 3600
What does WFQ stand for? WFQ stands for weighted fair queuing.
What is process switiching? Process switching is a process that involves the switching of entire packets to the router CPU
What Cisco series routers are used at the core layer? The core layer uses the 12000
What is an incremental routing update? An incremental routing update is a routing update that contains information only about routes that have changed.
What Cisco series routers are used at the access layer? The access layer uses the 2600
What is packet switching on a router? Packet switching on a router is the process of receiving a packet on one interface and then forwarding it out another interface.
What is tunneling? Tunneling is an architecture that is designed to provide the services necessary to implement any standard point-to-point encapsulation scheme.
What are two types of Layer 1 network devices? Two types of Layer 1 network devices are: - Repeaters: Repeaters regenerate and retime network signals
What are some network devices that operate at the data link layer (Layer 2)? Bridges and switches are network devices that operate at the data link layer. Both devices decide what traffic to forward or drop (filter) based on MAC addresses. Logical network addresses are not used at this layer. Data link layer devices assume a flat
What are collision domains? A collision domain defines a group of devices connected to the same physical medium. A collision occurs when two packets are sent at the same time and collide with each other (electronically). When a collision occurs
What devices are used to break up collision domains? Switches
At what layer of the OSI model do routers and multilayer switches function? Routers and some multilayer switches function at the network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI model. Both devices learn
What three pieces of info are found in a routing table? a) Protocol-specific network addresses. If you run more than one protocol
One interface on a router creates how many broadcast and how many collision domains? 1
One interface on a switch creates how many broadcast and how many collision domains? 0
In addition to learning the remote network and providing a path to the network what seven other functions do routers carry out?
Does a router forward broadcasts or multicasts? No
Can routers connect virtual LANs (VLANs) by routing traffic between them. Yes
Can routers provide QoS for specified types of network traffic? Yes
What are broadcast domains? A broadcast domain defines a group of devices that receive each others' broadcast messages. As with collisions
What devices are used to break up broadcast domains? Routers are used to break up broadcast domains. They create more broadcast domains and smaller broadcast areas.
Is there any circumstance under which a switch could create a broadcast domain? Yes
Describe the difference between a physical network topology and a logical network topology. All of today's networks have physical and logical topologies. Physical topologies refer to the physical layout of devices and network media. Logical topologies refer to the logical paths in which data accesses the medium and transmits packets across it.
What are the five types of physical topologies implemented in today's networks? The five most common physical network topologies implemented today are: - Bus - Ring - Star - Extended star - Mesh
What physical network topology connects all devices to one cable? A bus & ring topology connects all devices by a single cable. This cable connects from one computer to another. In a logical bus and a single ring topology
Describe a star and extended star physical topology. A star or extended star physical topology is made up of a central connection point
Describe a ring topology. In a ring topology
What physical network topology connects all devices to each other? A mesh network connects all devices to each other for fault tolerance and redundancy.
What PC component is considered the "brains" of the computer? The CPU is considered the "brains" of the computer. It is the PC component where most calculations take place.
Created by: doogie