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RMA7

RMA lecture 7

QuestionAnswer
What are the disadvantages of face-to-face surveys? Time-consuming, labour-intensive, social desirability, will not work for sensitive topics.
What are the disadvantages of telephone surveys? Time-consuming, labour-intensive, social desirability, will not work for sensitive topics, hanging up, difficulty in participation
What are the disadvantages of written questionnaires? Social desirability bias, difficulty in participation, anonymity can be an issue
What are some of the challenges to measurement? Participant reactivity, biases and expectations, composite scores, score sensitivity, lack of awareness of important psychometric information
What are the different types of response bias? Acquiescence bias, extreme and moderate responding, social desirability, malingering and careless or random responding
What is the definition of acquiescence bias? Individual agrees/disagrees with statements without regard for the meaning of those statements
How do you detect acquiescence bias? Use reverse-coded questions.
What is extreme/moderate reporting? Participants always use/avoid extremities in answering the questions.
What happens if acquiescence bias is not accounted for? Distracts from the research question, creates correlations etc when there is none
Why does acquiescence bias happen? 1) Items might be too complex 2) Testing situation might be distracting. As a result, people are too cognitively occupied, and so respond by saying yes/no to every question.
When should we pay attention to extreme/moderate reporting? 1) People with identical construct levels differ in their tendency to use extreme and moderate options 2) People with different construct levels do not differ in their willingness to use extreme and moderate options
Why is accounting for extreme/moderate reporting important? It can obscure true differences among respondent’s construct levels.
Why is accounting for social desirability important? It can create artificial relationships between measures.
What is careless or random reporting? A respondent might complete the test by simply “cycling through” the response scale. They might also respond randomly.
What is malingering? Faking answers by answering disingenuously etc
What are the three strategies mentioned by FUrr and Bacharach (2013) to cope with these problems? Managing testing context, managing test content or scoring, and specialised tests
How do we manage testing context? Minimising fatigue, stress, distractions and frustration. 1) Keeping tests less than 1 hour 2) Few distractions 3) Tell them that false responding can be detected
How do we manage test content? 1) Simple, straightforward items - frustation 2) Neutral socdes items 3) Forced choice equally desirable qns but reduced sense 3) Use balanced scales 4) Validity scales - L-scale - remove, control or use data
How are specialized tests used to detect bias and inervene? Researcher can intervene by controlling for detected bias