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URI BIO 244 Ch 2

Ch: 2 Cell Physiology

The thin membranous structure that encloses each cell and is composed mostly of lipid (fat) molecules and studded with proteins. Plasma Membrane
Typically the largest single organized cell component, can be seen as a distinct spherical or oval structure, usually located near the center of the cell. Nucleus
The nucleus is surrounded by a double layered membrane which separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell. Nuclear Envelope
The nuclear envelope is pierced by many of these things that allow necessary traffic to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Nuclear Pores
The nucleus houses this genetic materials, which along with associated nuclear proteins, is organized into chromosomes. DNA
Each one of these consists of a different DNA molecule that contains a unique set of genes. Body cells contain 46 of them that can be sorted into 23 pairs on the basis of their distinguishing features. Chromosomes
These are two important functions of DNA... Serving as a genetic blueprint during replication and directing protein synthesis.
What is RNA? Ribonucleic acid
Three types of RNA play a role in protein synthesis.... Messenger RNA (mRNA), Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Messenger RNA DNA's genetic code for a particular protein is first transcribed into this molecule, which exits the nucleus through the nuclear pores. It delivers the coded message to ribosomes within the cytoplasm.
Ribosomes Read the DNA code from mRNA and translate it into the appropriate amino acid sequence for the designated protein being synthesized.
Ribosomal RNA An essential component of robosomes.
Transfer RNA Delivers the appropriate amino acids within the cytoplasm to their designated site in the protein under construction at the ribosome.
Gene Expression Refers to the multistepped process by which information encoded in a gene is used to direct the synthesis of a protein molecule.
RNA Interference When microRNA and small interfering RNA bind to mRNA and block the production of mRNA's protein product.
Genome All of the genetic information coded in a complete single set of DNA in a typical body cell.
Proteome The complete set of proteins that can be expressed by the protein-coding genes in the genome.
Epigentics Studies environmentally induced modifications of a gene's activity that do not involve a change in the gene's DNA code. Environmental factors such as smoking, high fat diets, and stress can alter the way genes are expressed.
Lipidome The full roster of lipids in the body cells.
Cytoplasm The portion of the cell interior not occupied by the nucleus. It contains a number of discrete, specialized organelles and the cytoskeleton dispersed within the cytosol.
Organelles Distinct, highly organized structures that perform specialized functions within the cell.
Membranous organelle A separate compartment within the cell that is enclosed by a membrane similar to the plasma membrane. The contents are separated from surrounding cytosol and contents of other organelles.
Nonmembranous organelle Not surrounded by membrane and are in direct contact with the cytosol. Include ribosomes, proteasomes, vaults and centrioles.
Cytoskeleton An interconnected system of protein fibers and tubes that extends throughout the cytosol. Gives the cell its shape, provides for its internal organization, and regulates various movements. Cell's bone and muscle.
Endoplasmic reticulum Extensive, continuous membranous network of fluid filled tubules and flattened sacs, partially studded with ribosomes. Forms new cell membrane and other cell components and manufactures products for secretion.
Golgi Complex Sets of stacked, flattened, membranous sacs. Modifies, packages, and distributes newly synthesized proteins.
Lysosomes Membranous sacs containing hydrolytic enzymes. Serve as cell's digestive system, destroying foreign substances and cellular debris.
Peroxisomes Membranous sacs containing oxidative enzymes. Perform detoxification activities.
Mitochondria Rod or oval shaped bodies enclosed by two membranes, with the inner membrane folded into cristae that project into an interior matrix. Major site of ATP production.
Proteasomes Degrade unwanted intracellular proteins that have been tagged for destruction by ubiquitin.
Vaults Shaped liked hollow octaganol barrels. Serve as cellular trucks for transport from nucleus to cytoplasm.
Centrioles Form and organize microtubules during assembly of the mitotic spindle during cell division and form cilia and flagella.
Intermediary Metabolism Enzymes Dispersed within the cytosol. Facilitate intracellular reactions involving degradation, synthesis, and transformation of small organic molecules. Found within Cytosol.
Transport, secretory, and endocytic vesicles Transport or store products being moved within, out of, or into the cell, respectively. Found within Cytosol.
Inclusions Glycogen granules, fat droplets. Store excess nutrients. Found within Cytosol.
Microtubules Maintain asymmetric cell shapes and coordinate complex cell movements, specifically serving as highways for transport of secretory vesicles within cell, serves as main structural/functional component of cilia and flagella.
Microfilaments Play a vital role in various cellular contractile systems, including muscle contraction and amoeboid movement; serve as a mechanical stiffener for microvilli. Found in Cytoskeleton.
Intermediate filaments Irregular, threadlike proteins. Help resist mechanical stress. Found in Cytoskeleton
Cytosol The semiliquid portion of the cytoplasm that surrounds the organelles. It is highly organized and gel-like with differences in composition. Found in Cytoskeleton.
Cilia Short, tiny hair like protusions usually found in large numbers on the surface of a ciliated cell.
Flagella Long, whip like appendages; typically, a cell has one or a few flagella at most.
Mitosis The DNA containing chromosomes of the nucleus are replicated, resulting in two identical sets.
Free ribosomes Synyhesize proteins for use within the cytosol.
Describe exocytosis A secretory vessicle fuses with the plasma membrane, releasing the vesicle contents to the cell exterior, The vesicle membrane becomes part of the plasma membrane.
Describe endocytosis Materials from the cell exterior are enclosed in a segment of the plasma membrane that pockets inward and pinches off as an endocytic vesicle.
Describe pinocytosis A droplet of ECF is taken up nonselectively. First the plasma membrane dips inwardly to form a pouch that contains a small amount of ECF, and then seals at the surface of the pouch, trapping the contents in a small endosome.
Describe phagocytosis Large multimolecular particles are internalized. Only a few specialized cells are capable of phagocytosis, most notably white blood cells.
Cellular respiration Refers collectively to the intracellular reactions in which energy rich molecules are broken down to form ATP, using O2 and producing CO2 in the process.
What are the stages of cellular respiration> Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, and Oxidative Phosphorulation
What is Glycolysis A chemical process involving 10 sequential reactions that break down glucose, a six carbon sugar molecule, into two pyruvate molecules, each with 3 carbons.
What happens during glycolysis? Glycolysis splits glucose (6 carbons) into two pyruvate molecules (three carbons each), with a net yield of 2 ATP plys 2 NADH (available for further energy extraction by the electron transport system)
Describe the Citric Acid Cycle A cyclical series of 8 biochemical reactions that are catalyzed by the enzymes of the mitochondrial matrix. Also known as the Kreb's Cycle.
What happens during the Citric Acid Cycle? The two carbons entering the cycle by means of acetyl-CoA are eventually converted to CO2 with oxaloacetate, which accepts acetyl-CoA, being regenerated at the end of the cyclical pathway. The hydrogens released bind to NAD+ and FAD for further processing
Describe Oxidative Phosphorylation The process by which ATP is synthesized using energy released by electrons as they are transferred to O2. This process involves two groups of proteins: electron transport system and ATP synthase.
Electron transport system Consists of electron carriers found in four large stationary protein complexes, numbered I, II, III, and IV, along with two highly mobile electron carriers - cytochrome c and ubiquinone, which shuttle electrons between the major complexes.
ATP Synthase Consists of a basal unit embedded in the inner membrane, connected by a stalk to a headpiece located in the matrix, with the stator bridging the basal unit and headpiece.
Chemiosis ATP production in mitochondria catalyzed by ATP synthase, which is activated by flow of H+ down a concentration gradient established by the electron transport system.
Describe the functions of NAD and FAD They are both carriers for hydrogen molecules where the hydrogen can be further processed by the electron transport system.
State and explain the First Law of Thermodynamics Energy can be neither created no destroyed. Therefore, energy is subject to the same kind of input-output balance as are the chemical components of the body, such as water and salt.
Describe oxidation reduction reactions 1 molecule loses an electron (Oxidation) and 1 molecule gains an electron (Reduction) OIL RIG
What happens when oxygen is not available during glycolysis? 2 pyruvates produce 2 Lactates, also known as lactic acid.
The Linking Step During cellular respiration, this is where glycolysis and the Kreb's Cycle (or Citric Acid Cycle) are linked. Pyruvate tranfers carbons to the acetyl group, forming acetyl - CoA.
Describe chemiosmotic coupling The production of ATP via a proton (H+) gradient (protein pump).
Distinguish between endergonic and exergonic reactions Endergonic reactions require energy while exergonic reactions release energy.



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