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RMA Lecture 5

What are the core principles of item construction? 1. Examination and interpretation of reliability and validity 2. Dimensionality 3. Ad-hoc/Modified Scales 4. Brief scale 5. Scales across different groups
How is the reliability and validity of the scale assessed? Internal consistency (cronbach's alpha) and convergent/discriminant/content validity.
Why is dimensionality important? It determines the number of meaningful scores that a scale produces; knowing dimensionality allows scores to be meaningfully calculated and interpreted.
Why are ad-hoc scales/modified scales not usually used? 1) Previously-validated scales are preferred 2) These scales also require psychometric evaluation 3) Modified scales might not have the psychometric properties or quality of an original scale.
Why are brief scales not usually used? Generally have weaker reliability
What are some factors to consider when using scales across different cultural groups, etc? 1) Differences in interpretation of words, instruction, questions 2) Differences in representation of the construct. So 1) Psychometric properties should be examined in each new group 2) Same goes for translating
What are the best practices used during item construction? 1. Simple 2. Informal 3. Avoid: negatives, double-barreled, forced-choice, unvarying, loaded/leading qns 8. Relevant questions 9. 1 construct many qns 10. Instructions to establish mindset 11. Ease into sensitive qns 12. Anon 13. Qn order 14. Pts/Anchors
Why is pilot testing important? 1) Detects possible flaws in measurement procedures 2) Detects possible flaws in items and scales 3) Identifies concerns regarding content or wording of items
What should pilot testing include? 1) A qualitative feedback component 2) Inform that results gathered will not be published and only for refinement - informed consent not required 3) Can only be conducted with 10 people
What is the procedure of pilot testing? 1) Provide introduction to pilot test - info about role and purpose of test 2) Hand out questionnnaire 3) Obtain average time taken to complete questionnaire 4) Ask for qualitative feedback 5) Analyse data 6) Compile findings, improve scale
What are the common pitfalls of pilot testing? 1) Participants unwilling/unable to retrieve information necessary to answer question 2) Participants dunno jargon 3) Participants have different understandings 4) Not enough response options 5) Leading options 6) No responseinstructions
Why do we sample? Individuals should be representative of population of interest, but too many, so sample
What is a target population? The group defined by the researcher's interests
What is the accessible population? The subset of the target population t which you have access
What is a representative sample? A sample that shares the same characteristics as the population.
What is a biased sample? A sample that has different characteristics from the population.
What is selection/sampling bias? Participants are selected in a manner that increases the likelihood of obtaining a biased sample.