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RMA Lecture 4

Why is validity important? Psychological tests guide policies and decision making. Without it, these decisions can be misinformed
What is content validity? The content of a test measures the content that *should be* included in the test e.g. Baratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11)
What are the 2 threats to content validity? 1. Construct-irrelevant content, and 2. Construct under-representation
What is construct-irrelevant content? Content that is irrelevant to the core construct e.g. I like to watch the walking dead etc
What is construct under-representation? Content fails to represent the full scope of the content
Why should there be a balance between construct-irrelevant and construct under-representation? Unable to include every facet of a construct due to test-taking duration and participant fatigue
What is face validity? The degree to which a measure appears to be related to a construct in the judgement of non-exerts
Why is face validity dangerous to validity? Superficial meaning and relevance of content might influence participant to respond in a less-than-honest manner
What are the 4 types of evidence for validity? 1. Test content 2. Internal structure 3. Response Processes 4. Associations with other variables
What is internal structure? The way the parts of a test are related to each other.
How should internal structure reflect validity? There should be a match between the actual internal structure of a test and the structure that the test should possess. I.e. we should expect a single tight cluster of items if, SAY, all the items in a test are correlated with each other.
How do response processes reflect validity? There should be a match between the psychological processes that respondents actually use when completing a measure and the process they should use.
How does the test's association with other variables reflect validity? There should be a match betwen a measure's actual associations with other measures and the asssociations that the test should have with other measures.
What are the two types of evidence reflecting validity in the test's associations with other variables? Convergent and discriminant evidence
What is concurrent validity evidence? The degree to which test scores are correlated with other relevant variables that are measured *at the same time*
What is predictive validity evidence? The degree to which test scores are correlated with relevant variables that are measured at a future point in time.
What is a nomological network? The interconnections between a construct and other related constructs.
What are the four methods used to evaluate the degree to which measures show convergent and discriminant associations? 1. Sets of correlations 2. Multi-trait multi-method metrices (MTMMM) 3.
How do sets of correlations demonstrate convergent and discriminant associations? "Eyeballing" correlations and making judgments about the degree to which the correlations match what would be expected.
How is a MTMMM carried out? Researchers obtain measures of several traits (Multi-trait), each of which are measured through several methods (Multi-method)
How does shared method variance undermine validity? Correlation of traits in the method is a by-product of bias inherent in method, and not commonality between the traits being measured.
How do correlations in the MTMMM reflect convergent validity? High correlations among measures of the same construct (Mono-trait), using different methods (Hetero-method) provide evidence for convergent validity.
How do correlations in the MTMMM reflect convergent validity? Low correlations among measures of different constructs (Multi-method), using the same methods (Hetero-method) provide evidence for discriminant validity
What are the 4 requirements to conclude that a measure is valid in MTMMM? 1. High cor. in 1trait-manymethod 2. Cor. in 1trait-manymethod more than cor. in manytrait-1method 3. Cor. in the 1trait-manymethod more than cor. in manytrait-manymethod 4. Patterns of trait interrelations same in both 1method and manymethod