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# RMA 3

### LECTURE 3

What is the importance of individual differences in psychological test data? They make up variability in the data
Why is there always variability in data? All individuals are different
What is systematic variability? A consistent trend in data across all individuals
What is the meaning of variance (s^2) in data? It represents the average degree to which people differ from each other, and thus is a measure of variability.
What is the meaning of standard deviation (SD)? It reflects variability in terms of the size of raw deviation scores.
What is the size of variance dependent on? 1.The degree to which the scores in a distribution differ from each other 2. The metric of the scores in the distribution (e.g. scale of the test)
How is co-variance computed? It is coomputed from variability among scores in two different distributons of scores.
What are the two pieces of information given by correlation scores? The direction of the association, and the magnitude of the association.
What are the three tpes of reliability? Test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, internal consistency reliability
How is Cronbach's alpha computed? 1. Scores for each item obtained 2. Obtain the variance and covariance between the items 3. Sum the covariances among all pairs of items
What does internal consistency reliability AKA Cronbach's alpha show? Sum of covariances reflects degree to which responses to all items are consistent with each other. The larger this sum, the more consistent the items are.