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Cell Parts/Functions

13 Cell Parts and Functions

Cell Wall A structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell. [found in: plants, fungi, bacteria, algae]
Cell Membrane A protective layer that covers the cell's surface and controls what moves in and out of the cell. [in ALL cells]
Cytoplasm The fluid, jelly-like substance that fills the cell. [in ALL cells]
Nucleus A large organelle in a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell's DNA/chromosomes/genetic material.
Chloroplast Organelles in plant cells that trap sunlight; organelle in which photosynthesis takes place. [CO2 + H2O + sunlight --> sugar]
Chromosome Structures in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells made of DNA (--> which has instructions for making proteins) [DNA in ALL cells]
Ribosome An organelle that makes proteins. [in ALL cells]
Lysosome The organelle that digests food particles, wastes, cell parts, and foreign invaders.
Mitochondria The organelles that that break down food/sugar to release energy [sugar + oxygen --> ENERGY + CO2 + H2O]
Endoplasmic Reticulum The organelle that transports proteins around the cell.
Golgi Body The organelle that packages proteins before they leave the cell.
Vacuole The organelle that stores water and other materials.
Nucleolus A darkened area in the nucleus which stores materials that will be used to make ribosomes.
prokaryote a single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles [example: bacteria, algae]
eukaryote an organism made up of cells that contain their DNA in a nucleus [examples: animals, plants, fungi, protists]
organelle a small body in a cell's cytoplasm that is specialized to perform a specific function (EX: nucleus, ribosome, etc.)
Created by: mrsgilbert