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BIO202 Chapt. 8 Resp

Rio/ Marieb Chapt 8 Vocab, Study Guide, Questions

The roof of the nasal cavity is formed by parts of the frontal bone. False
The pleura is a thin, single layered serosa that divides into parietal and visceral pleura. False
The alveolar ventilation is the best index of effective ventilation. True
Intrapleural pressure is normally about 4 mm Hg less than the pressure in the alveoli. True
In chronic bronchitis, mucous production is decreased and this leads to the inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosal lining of the bronchial tree. False
Labored breathing is called dyspnea. True
Each lung has an indentation, the pelvis, through which blood vessels enter and leave the lung. False
The alveolar ventilation rate is the best index of ventilation. True
The pleura is a thin, single-layered serosa that divides into the parietal and visceral pleura. False
Under certain conditions, the vocal folds act as s sphincter that prevents air passage. True
The paired lungs are located in the mediastinum. True
The epiglottis is a smooth muscle that covers the glottis during swallowing. False
No exchange of gases occurs here Terminal Bronchioles
The respiratory membrane is composed of bused basal laminas for capillary walls and Type I Cells
Terminates in alveoli Alveolur Duct
Composed of simple squamous epithelium Type I Cells
Intrapleural pressue is normally about 4 mmHg less than the pressure in the alveoli. True
The largest amount of carbon dioxide transferred in the blood stream is in the form of carbonic anhydrase. False
Composed of cuboidal cells Type II Cells
Increased Temperature results in decreased oxygen unloading from hemoglobin. False
Where the respiratory zone of the lungs begin Respiratory Bronchioles
The respiratory membrane is composed of bused basal laminas for capillary walls and Type 1 Cells
Secreta a fluid containing surfactant Type II Cells
The physiological term for breathing. Pulmonary Ventilation
What volume of air is moved in and out of the lungs during normal, quiet breathing? 500mL
The amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation (2800 ml). Inpiratory Reserve Volume
The process by which air is taken into the lungs. Inspiration
TV + IRV + ERV = (4800) ml. Vital Capacity (VC)
An inspiratory muscle. Diaphragm
The apparatus used to measure respiratory volume. Spirometer
Sounds produced by air rushing through the trachea and bronchi. Bronchial Sounds
What is the normal pH of arterial blood (+/- 0.02)? 7.4
When carbon dioxide enters red blood cells and combines with water, what is formed? Carbonic Acid
Air and food are routed in to the proper channels by the: Larynx
The loudness of a person's voice depends on: The force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
The smallest macroscopic subdivision of the lung is the: Lobule
The pleurae are vital to the integrity of the lungs because: They produce a lubricating serous secretion, allowing the lungs to glide over the thorax wall during breathing
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by: Interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is: Increase of carbon dioxide
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is: Only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
Which of the following changes occurs as the conducting tubes of the lungs become smaller? Smooth muscle amount increases
The ideal vital capacity of an individual is around: 4800 mL
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange? Alveoli
The respiratory membrane is a combination of: Alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basal lamina
A gas emboli may occur because: A diver holds his breath upon ascent
Inspiratory capacity is: The total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn? The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute
The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are: Surface tension from pleural fluid, positive pressure, and atmospheric pressure on the thorax
Which of the following is not possible? Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance
Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes form a low to a high altitude because: The concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood: A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal
Two pairs of vocal folds are found in the larynx. Which pair are the true vocal cords (superior or inferior)? Inferior
Forms the Adam's apple: thyroid
Shaped like a signet ring: Cricoid
A "lid" for the larynx: Epiglottis
Vocal cord attachment: Arytenoid
Which is lung longer? Left
Larger in lung diameter? Right
Which lung is more horizonatal Left
Which lung more commonly traps a foreign object that has entered the respiratory passageways? Right
Connects the larynx to the primary bronchi: Trachea
Site of tonsils: Pharynx
Food passageway posterior to the trachea: Esophagus
Covers the glottis during swallowing of food: Epiglottis
Contains the vocal cords: Larynx
Nerve that activates the diaphragm during inspiration: Phrenic Nerve
Pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax: Parietal Pleura
Site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood: alveolus
Connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx: opening of pharyngotympanic tube
Opening between the vocal folds: Glottis
Increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity: Concha
Separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity: Palate
1. What is the significance of the fact that the human trachea if reinforced with cartilaginous rings? Prevents its collapse during pressure changes occurring during breathing.
What is the function of the pleural membranes? Produce a serous fluid that reduces friction during breathing movements and helps to hold the lungs tightly to the thorax wall which keeps the lungs inflated.
Name two functions of the nasal cavity mucosa. Warms the incoming air and moistens the incoming air.
Trace a molecule of oxygen from the external nares to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs. External nares to the nasal cavity to the pharynx to the larynx to the trachea to the primary bronchus to the secondary/tertiary bronchi, etc. to the bronchiole to the respiratory bronchiole to the alveolar duct to the alveolar sac across the alveolar/cap
What portions of the respiratory system are referred to as anatomical dead space? All but the respiratory zone structures (respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and sacs, and alveoli).
External respiration: Exchange of gases across the respiratory membrane in the lungs.
Internal respiration: Exchange of respiratory gases between the blood of the systemic capillaries and the tissue cells of the body.
Cellular respiration: Oxygen-using cellular processes (that produce energy) with tissue cells.
When the diaphragm is pushed up The internal volume of the thoracic cage = decreasesThe internal pressure of the thoracic cage = increasesThe size (volume) of the lungs = decreasesAir flows = out of the lungs
When the diaphragm is pulled down The internal volume of the thoracic cage = increasesThe internal pressure of the thoracic cage = decreasesThe size (volume) of the lungs = increasesAir flows = into the lungs
The internal conditions where air tends to flow into the lungs are increased thoracic volume and decreased pressure. True
Which of the respiratory sounds is heard during both inspiration and expiration? Bronchial
Which of the respiratory sounds is heard primarily during both inspiration? vesicular
Volume of air present in the lungs after a forceful expiration = residual volume (~1100 ml)
Volume of air that can be expired forcibly after a normal expiration = expiratory reserve (~1200 ml)
Volume of air that is breathed in and out during a normal respiration = tidal volume (~500 ml)
Volume of air that can be inspired forcibly after a normal inspiration = inspiratory reserve (~2700-2800 ml)
Volume of air corresponding to TV + IRV + ERV = vital capacity (~4800 ml)
Which of the following choices best describes the percentage of composition of air of Inspired and Expired CO2? Inspired CO2: ~0.04%; Expired CO2: ~4%
Which of the following choices best describes the percentage of composition of air of Inspired and Expired N2? Inspired N2: ~78%; Expired N2: ~74%
Which of the following choices best describes the percentage of composition of air of Inspired and Expired O2? Inspired O2: ~21%; Expired O2: ~16%
Where are the neural control centers of respiratory rhythm? medulla oblongata and pons.
Where are sensory receptors sensitive to changes in O2 levels in the blood located? aortic arch or aortic bodies and carotid sinus or carotid bodies or common carotid arteryor bifurcation.
Activation of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles begins the inspiratory process. What effect does contraction of these muscles have on thoracic volume, and how is this accomplished? This increases thoratic volume. The diaphragm moves inferiorly, increasing the superior-inferior dimension; the ribs wing up an dout, increasing the lateral and anterior/posterior dimensions.
What temporary physiological advantage does the substantial increase in chest circumference during forced inspiration create? Increases the thoracic volume more; therefore, creates a greater negative internal pressure, causing the gases to rush in quickly. Also, more "fresh" air reaches the alveoli.
The presence of a partial vacuum between the pleural membranes is integral to normal breathing movements. What would happen if an opening were made into the chest cavity, as with a puncture wound? Destroys the partial vacuum in the pleural space and the lung on the affected side collapses.
How is this condition treated medically? Air is withdrawn (chest tube) and the chest is closed.
Would a vital-capacity measurement differ if you performed the test while standing? While lying down? Explain. Yes. When lying down or sitting, the abdominal organs press against the diaphragm, making it more difficult for the diaphragm to move inferiorly.
Which respiratory ailments can respiratory volume tests be used to detect? Chronic bronchitis and emphysema (often associated). Chronic bronchitis decreases the volume of air that can be inhaled due to excessive mucus production; emphysema decreases the amount of air that can be exhaled (check-valve effect).
Why does hyperventilation produce apnea, or a reduced respiratory rate? Hyperventilation washes carbon dioxide out of the blood. Since carbon dioxide is the major chemical stimulus for inspiration, the desire or drive to breathe is decreased.
Where are sensory receptors sensitive to changes in "blood pressure" located? Aortic bodies in the aortic arch and carotid bodies at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery
What is the primary factor that initiates breathing in a newborn infant? Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Blood CO 2 levels and blood pH are related. When blood CO 2 levels increase, does the pH increase or decrease? Explain why. The pH decreases. Carbon dioxide combines with water to produce carbonic acid which dissociates and liberates a hydrogen ion.
Define buffer: A molecule or molecular system that acts to resist changes in pH.
What buffer system operates in blood plasma? Carbonic acid - bicarbonate system.
What role does exhalation of carbon dioxide play in maintaining relatively constant blood pH? Carbon dioxide leaves the blood during exhalation. This prevents an accumulation of carbonic acid.



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