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2016 100-105 ICND1

C1Ch1:3-What is the largest network in existence? The Internet
C1Ch1:3-The term internet means? a 'network of networks'
C1Ch1:4-What does network infrastructure provide? The platform that supports the network
C1Ch1:4-What are two attributes required for a communication channel? Stable and reliable
C1Ch1:4-What is the internet made of? end devices; intermediate devices and network media
C1Ch1:5-True or False? Networks must be reliable TRUE
C1Ch1:5-What does network reliability mean? Fault tolerant; scaleable; provide quality of service and ensure security of the information and resources on the network
C1Ch1:5-True or False? Network security is an integral part of computer networking? TRUE
C1Ch1:5-True or False? One single solution can protect the network from the variety of threats that exist FALSE
C1Ch1:5-What benefit does using more than one security solution provide? Layers of security since no single solution covers all threats
C1Ch1:6-Network infrastructure must _____ and adjust to support the way the network is used Grow
C1Ch1:6-What is the foundation of any network infrastructure? Routing and Switching
C1Ch2:1-Cisco IOS can be deployed as _______ on _______ networking devices Cisco IOS can be deployed as _different OS_ on _various_ networking devices
C1Ch2:1-The technician can enter ________ to configure network devices Commands
C1Ch2:2-Cisco IOS CLI can be accessed by three methods 1) console port; 2) AUX port; or 3) remote access (SSH/Telnet)
C1Ch2:2-What are the three primary IOS CLI modes for technicians? 1) User; 2) Privileged and 3) Global Configuration
C1Ch2:3-True or False? Cisco routers and switches support similar modal CLI and command structures TRUE
C1Ch2:3-True or False? Do Cisco routers and switches have identical initial configuration steps? TRUE
C1Ch2:4-What are four common initial settings of a CISCO IOS device? 1) set hostname; 2) limit access to config; 3) banner config; and 4) save initial config to NVRAM
C1Ch3:1-Data networks are systems of: 1) end devices; 2) intermediary devices and 3) the media connecting them
C1Ch3:1-For communication to occur, these devices must comply with? Rules and Protocols
C1Ch3:2-What is an example of a communication protocol suite? TCP/IP
C1Ch3:2-By whom are most network communication protocols created? IETF or IEEE
C1Ch3:2-What professional organization is IEEE? Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
C1Ch3:2-Who is the world's larged developer of international standards for products and services? ISO - International Organization for Standardization
C1Ch3:3-What are the two most widely used networking models (theory) OSI and TCP/IP
C1Ch3:3-Different layers of the networking models are associated to what? Protocols that set the rules for communication
C1Ch3:4-Which direction does data travel on the OSI model when it is segmented into pieces and encapsulated with addresses and labels? Down
C1Ch3:4-Which direction does data travel on the OSI model when it is de-encapsulated and passed through the OSI stack? Up
C1Ch3:4-What processes does the OSI model describe? 1) Encoding; 2) Formatting; 3) Segmenting and 4) Encapsulation of data for transmission
C1Ch3:5-True or False? The TCP/IP protocol suite is closed source. FALSE
C1Ch3:5-The suite of protocols required for transmitting and reciving information using the internet is? Internet Protocol suite
C1Ch3:6-What are the five Protocol Data Units (PDUs) called? 1) data; 2) segment; 3) packet; 4) frame; and 5) bits
C1Ch3:7-What is the benefit of applying network models? To analyze current networks and plan the networks of the future.
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:1-What does the OSI data link layer (L2) and physical layer (L1) equate to in the TCP/IP network model? Network access layer
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:2-What does the OSI physical layer provide? A means to transport the bits that make up the data link layer frame across the network media
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:2-Which physical components represent the bits? 1) Electronic hardware devices; 2) Media; and 3) other connectors that transmit the signals to represent bits
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:2-What network components are designed with L1 physical standards 1) NICs; 2) Interfaces and Connectors; 3) Cable materials and 4) Cable Designs
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:2-What functional areas do the three physical layer standards address: 1) physical components; 2) frame encoding technique and 3) signaling method.
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:3-True or False? Using the proper media is an important part of network communications TRUE
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:3-What is required for wired or wireless communications to occur between two networked devices? Proper physical connection
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:4-What two materials support wired communication? 1) Copper media and 2) fibre cable
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:5-What are the three main types of copper media used in networking? 1) unshielded-twisted pair (UTP); 2) shielded-twisted pair (STP) and 3) coaxial cable
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:5-What is the most common copper networking media? UTP - unshielded-twisted pair
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:6-Which material has become very popular for interconnecting infrastructure network devices? Optical fibre optic
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:6-Two pros of optical fibre cable over any other network media 1) transmits over longer distances and 2) at higher bandwidths
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:6-What cabling material transmits with less attenuation AND is completely immune to EMI and RFI Fibre-optic cable
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:7-What frequencies of transmission do wireless media carry signals that represent binary data? 1) Radio and 2) microwave
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:8-True or False? The number of wireless-enabled devices is declining. FALSE
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:8-Which network medium of choice for home networks and quickly gaining popularity in enterprise networks? Wireless
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:9-What does the data link layer handle? The exchange of frames between nodes over a physical network media
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:8-What allows the upper layers to access the media and control how data is placed and received on the media? Data link layer
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:10-True or False? There is one method of controlling access to the media among different implementation of data link layer protocols FALSE
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:10-What does media access control technique define? If and how the nodes share the media
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:10-What two attributes control the actual media access control method? 1) topology and 2) media sharing
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:10-True or False? LAN and WAN toplolgies can be logical or physical TRUE
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:10-What influences the type of network framing and media access control used on a network? Logical topology
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:10-What are three common WAN interconnection methods? 1) point-to-point; 2) hub and spoke; and 3) Mesh physical topologies
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:10-What are four common LAN interconnection methods? 1) Star; 2) bus; 3) ring; or 4) extended star physical topologies
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:11-True or False? All data link layer protocols encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU within the data field of the frame TRUE
C1Ch4 Network Access L1:11-What will control the variance of the structure of a frame and the fields contained in the header and trailer The current protocol in use
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:1-What is the most widely used LAN technology today? Ethernet
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:1-Which IEEE standards define Ethernet as a family of networking technologies 1) 802.2 and 802.3
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:1-Which OSI model layers are defined by the Ethernet standards? 1) Layer 1 technologies and 2) Layer 2 protocols
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:1-Which sublayers of the data link layer does Ethernet rely? 1) Logical Link Control (LLC) and 2) MAC sublayers
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:2-Which layer is the frame structure nearly identical for all bandwidths of Ethernet? Data link layer
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:2-What is the general Ethernet frame structure? Adds headers and trailers around the Layer 3 PDU (encapsulates) the message being sent
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:3-What are the two styles of Ethernet framing? 1) IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard and 2) Ethernet II (DIX Ethernet standard)
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:3-What are the two significant differences between the two Ethernet Framing standards? 1) The addition of a Start Frame Delimiter (SFD) and 2) the change of the type field to a length field in the 802.3
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:3-Which frame format is used in TCP/IP networks? Ethernet II
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:3-As an implementation of the IEEE 802.2/3 standards, What does the Ethernet frame provide? 1) MAC addressing and 2) Error checking
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:4-What directional communications are provided by Layer 2 addressing in Ethernet? 1) Unicast; 2) Multicast and 3) Broadcast
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:4-What does Ethernet use to determine the MAC address of destinations and map them against known IPv4 addresses? Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:5-What two address types do each node of an IPv4 network provided? 1) MAC Address and 2) IPv4 address
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:5-What is the IP address used to identify? 1) The original source and 2) Final destination of a packet
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:5-True or False? Ethernet MAC addresses are used to send the packet from one Ethernet NIC to another Ethernet NIC on the same IP network? TRUE
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:5-What is used to map a known IPv4 address to a MAC address - to allow a packet to e encapsulated in an Ethernet frame with a correct Layer 2 address? ARP
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:6-What two message types does ARP rely? 1) ARP requests (Ethernet Broadcast) and 2) ARP replies (Ethernet Unicast)
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:6-What resolves IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses and maintains a table of mappings? ARP protocol
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:7-What is the typical connection for end devices on Ethernet networks? A point to point basis to a Layer 2, full-duplex switch
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:7-A Layer 2 lan switch performs switching and filtering based only on what? The OSI data link layer (L2) MAC address
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:7-What does a Layer 2 switch build to make forwarding decisions MAC address table
C1Ch5 Ethernet L2:7-What does a Layer 2 switch depend on to pass data between independent IP subnetworks? A router
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:1-What does OSI Layer 3 (network layer) provide? Services to allow end devices to exchange data across the network
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:1-What are the four basic processes for network layer (L3)? 1) IP addressing for end devices; 2) Encapsulation; 3) routing and 4) Deencapsulation
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:2-What is the current most widely-used network layer protocol on the internet? IPv4
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:2-What does an IPv4 packet contain? 1) IP header and 2) Payload
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:2-True or False? IPv4 has an unlimited number of unique public IP addresses available FALSE
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:2-What was a major contributor to the creation of IPv6? The limited number of unique public IP addresses in IPv4
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:2-What does the IPv6 simplified header offer? 1) Better routing efficiency; 2) Simplified extension headers; and 3) Capability for per-flow processing
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:2-What is the size of the IPv6 vs. the IPv4 addresses? IPv6 is based on 128-bit opposed to IPv4 32-bits
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:2-How does the number of available IP addresses compare between IPv4 and IPv6 Dramatically increased with IPv6
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:3-What is the IPv6 network layer responsible for in addition to hierarchical addressing? Routing
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:4-What does a host require to ensure that packets are directed to the correct destination network? A local routing table
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:4-What are three common elements in a host's local routing table? 1) Direct connection; 2) Local network route and 3) Local default route
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:4-What is the local default route? The route to the default gateway
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:5-What is the default gateway? The IP address of a router interface connected to the local network
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:5-When is a packet sent to the default gateway for further processing? When a host needs to forward a packet to a destination address that is not on the same network as the host
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:6-What does the router (such as the default gateway) examine to determine the destination network? The destination IP address in the packet
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:6-What does the routing table store? Info about 1) Directly connected routes and 2) remote routes to IP networks
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:6-When will a router forward a packet it is processing? When the router has an entry in its routing table for the destination network
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:6-What will a router do if no routing entry exists when processing a packet? 1) Send it to its default route or 2) drop the packet if no default route is configured
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:7-What are two ways that routing table entries can be obtained? 1) static routes -manually configured or 2) dynamically through a dynamic routing protocol
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:8-What is a prerequisite of a router being reachable? The router interface must be configured
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:8-How to enable a specific interface? Enter interface configuration mode by using the "interface" <type and number> global config mode command
C1Ch7 Subnet:1-What are three attributes of IP addresses? They are hierarchical with 1) network; 2) subnetwork and 3) host portions
C1Ch7 Subnet:1-What can an IP address represent? 1) A complete network; 2) A specific host or 3) broadcast address of the network
C1Ch7 Subnet:2-True or False? Understanding binary notation is important when determining if two hosts are in the same network TRUE
C1Ch7 Subnet:2-For all devices that reside on the same network, What can be said about their IP addresses? The bits within the network portion of the IP address must be identical
C1Ch7 Subnet:2-What is the subnet mask used for? To determine the network portion of an IP address
C1Ch7 Subnet:2-What are two methods that IP addresses can be assigned? 1) Statically and 2) Dynamically
C1Ch7 Subnet:2-What addressing information can DHCP provide automatically? 1) IP address; 2) Subnet mask; 3) default gateway as well as other info
C1Ch7 Subnet:3-What are three ways that IPv4 hosts can communicate? 1) Unicast; 2) Multicast and 3) Broadcast
C1Ch7 Subnet:3-What are blocks of addresses used in networks that require limited or no internet access called? Private addresses
C1Ch7 Subnet:3-What are the IPv4 Private address blocks? 1); 2) and 3)
C1Ch7 Subnet:4-What is the motivating factor to migrate to IPv6? The depletion of IPv4 address space
C1Ch7 Subnet:4-How many bits make up an IPv6 address compared to IPv4 IPv6 is based on 128-bit opposed to IPv4 32-bits
C1Ch7 Subnet:4-True or False? IPv6 does not use the dotted-decimal subnet mask notation TRUE
C1Ch7 Subnet:4-What is the meaning of prefix length in IPv6 address/prefix length? Prefix length is used to indicate the network portion of an IPv6 address (instead of a dotted-decimal subnet mask)
C1Ch7 Subnet:5-What are the three types of IPv6 addresses 1) Unicast; 2) Multicast and 3) Anycast
C1Ch7 Subnet:5-What enables device communication with other IPv6-enabled devices on the same link (and only on that link (subnet)? IPv6 link local address
C1Ch7 Subnet:5-True or False? Packets with a source or destination "link-local" address cannot be routed beyond the link from which the packet originated TRUE
C1Ch7 Subnet:5-What is the range of the IPv6 link-local address? FE80::/10 range
C1Ch7 Subnet:6-What is the messaging protocol for IPv4 ICMPv4
C1Ch7 Subnet:6-What is the messaging protocol for IPv6 ICMPv6 and includes additional functionality over ICMPv4
C1Ch7 Subnet:7-Should an IP network need testing to verify its connectivity and operational performance after its implemented? Yes
C1Ch8 VLSM:1-What is the process of segmenting a network into smaller network spaces called? Subnetting
C1Ch8 VLSM:2-What does every network address contain? A valid range of host addresses
C1Ch8 VLSM:2-What will all devices attached to the same IPv4 network have? 1) An IPv4 host address for that network and 2) a common subnet mask or network prefix
C1Ch8 VLSM:2-True or False? Traffic can be forwarded between hosts directly if they are on the same subnet TRUE
C1Ch8 VLSM:2-What is required to forward traffic between subnets? A router
C1Ch8 VLSM:2-What does the router use to determine if traffic is local or remote? The subnet mask (against the IP address)
C1Ch8 VLSM:2-What are two ways of representing the network portion of an IPv4 address? 1) Prefix - /24 and 2) Subnet mask -
C1Ch8 VLSM:3-How are IPv4 subnets created? By using one or more of the host bits as network bits
C1Ch8 VLSM:3-What are two very important factors that lead to determination of IP address block and complimentary subnet mask? 1) the number of subnets required and 2) the maximum number of hosts needed per subnet
C1Ch8 VLSM:3-The number of subnets and number of hosts has what type of mathematical relationship? Inverse
C1Ch8 VLSM:3-What is the implication of borrowing more bits to create more subnets? Fewer host bits are available
C1Ch8 VLSM:4-What is the formula to determine how many addresses a network will contain? 2^n where n is the number of host bits remaining
C1Ch8 VLSM:4-In every IPv4 network, the network address and broadcast address are Not available for host addresses
C1Ch8 VLSM:4-What is the formula to determine how many USABLE addresses a network will contain? 2^n-2 where n is the number of host bits remaining
C1Ch8 VLSM:5-What technique is used to avoid wasting addresses when subnetting a subnet? Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM)
C1Ch8 VLSM:6-True or False? IPv6 subnetting can be performed like IPv4 subnetting? FALSE
C1Ch8 VLSM:6-What is an IPv6 address space subnetted for if it is not to conserve addresses? To support a hierarchical, logical design of a network
C1Ch8 VLSM:6-What is the purpose of IPv6 subnetting? To build an addressing hierarchy based on the number of routers and networks they support
C1Ch8 VLSM:7-What are four considerations for IP address planning? 1) Size; 2) Location; 3) Use and 4) Access requirements
C1Ch8 VLSM:8-Should an IP network need testing to verify its connectivity and operational performance after its implemented? Yes
C1Ch9 Transport layer:1-What does the transport layer provide for services: 1) Dividing data received from application in to segments; 2) Adding a header to id and manage each segment; 3) using the header info to reassemble the segments back into application data and 4) Passing assembled to the correct application
C1Ch9 Transport layer:6-What are the two common transport layer protocols? 1) TCP and 2) UDP
C1Ch9 Transport layer:7-What does a UDP datagram and a TCP segment have added to it? Headers added in front of the data that include a source port number and destination port number
C1Ch9 Transport layer:7-What do port numbers allow? The data to be directed to the correct applicatoin running on the destination computer
C1Ch9 Transport layer:8-When will TCP pass data to the network? Once it knows the destination is ready to receive it
C1Ch9 Transport layer:8-Once a TCP destination is ready, what will TCP do? 1) Manage the flow of data and 2) resend any data segments that are not acknowledged as being received by destination
C1Ch9 Transport layer:8-What are four methods that TCP use to ensure reliability? 1) Handshaking; 2) Timers; 3) Acknowledgement messages and 4) Dynamic windowing
C1Ch9 Transport layer:8-What is the implication of TCP reliability process? It imposes overhead on the network in terms of larger segment headers and more network traffic between source and destination.
C1Ch9 Transport layer:9-When would an app developer prefer UDP transport layer protocol? 1) If the application data needed to be delivered across the network quickly or 2) if network bandwidth cannot suppor the overhead of control messages being exchanged between source and destination systems
C1Ch9 Transport layer:9-True or False? UDP provides all of the TCP reliability features? FALSE
C1Ch9 Transport layer:9-UDP does not necessarily mean that communication itself is unreliable, what is required? The application layer protocols and services may provide for lost or delayed datagrams if the application had those requirements
C1Ch9 Transport layer:10-Who decides which transport layer best meets the requirements of an application? The application developer
C1Ch9 Transport layer:10-The other layers also play a part in what with respect to data network communications? They influence its performance
C1Ch10 App layer:1-What layer is responsible for directly accessing the underlying processes that manage and deliver communication to the human network? The Application layer
C1Ch10 App layer:1-True or False? The application layer serves as the source and destination of communications across data networks? TRUE
C1Ch10 App layer:1-What does the application layer application, services and protocols enable users to do? Interact with the data network in a way that is meaningful and effective.
C1Ch10 App layer:2-What are applications? Computer programs with which users interact and initiate data transfer processes
C1Ch10 App layer:3-What are services? Background programs that provide connection between application layer and lower layers of the network model
C1Ch10 App layer:4-What provides a structure of agreed-upon rules that ensure services running on one particular device can send and receive data from a range of different network devices? Protocols
C1Ch10 App layer:5-What three device types can request data delivery over a network? 1) Client in Client/server; 2) Server in client/server; 3) Peer in P2P network
C1Ch10 App layer:5-How is the client/server relationship established in P2P? According to which device is the source and destination at that time.
C1Ch10 App layer:5-True or False? Messages are exchanged between Application layer services at each end device in accordance with the protocol specifications to establish and use these relationships. TRUE
C1Ch10 App layer:6-What protocol supports delivery of unsecured web pages to end devices? HTTP
C1Ch10 App layer:6-What are three common email protocols? 1) SMTP; 2) POP and 3) IMAP
C1Ch10 App layer:6-What are two common file sharing protocols? 1) SMB and 2) FTP
C1Ch10 App layer:6-What do popular P2P applications allow? Eases consumers seamlessly sharing media in a distributed fashion.
C1Ch10 App layer:6-What protocol resolves human-legible names into numeric addresses usable by the network? Domain Name Service (DNS)
C1Ch10 App layer:6-What are remote, upstream locations that store data and host applications to reduce local user resources and seamlessly access content from multiple devices Clouds
C1Ch10 App layer:7-What is the common function of the application layer? enables users to work and play over the internet
C1Ch11 Small Nets:1-Even small networks require this to meet user requirements. Planning and design.
C1Ch11 Small Nets:1-What does planning ensure? 1) All requirements, 2) Cost factors and 3) deployment options are given due consideration
C1Ch11 Small Nets:1-What are three important parts of a network design? 1) reliability; 2) scalability and 3) availability
C1Ch11 Small Nets:2-What knowledge is required to support and grow a small network? Familiarity with protocols and network applications on the network
C1Ch11 Small Nets:2-What devices enable a network professional to quickly compile statistical information about traffic flows on a network? Protocol Analyzers.
C1Ch11 Small Nets:2-What info is gathered by protocol analyzers? Data containing network traffic source, destination and protocol (type)
C1Ch11 Small Nets:2-What can protocol analyzer information allow a network technician to do? Make decisions about how to manage traffic more efficiently.
C1Ch11 Small Nets:2-What are common network protocols? 1) DNS; 2)DHCP; 3) Telnet; 4) SMTP, 5) POP; 6) HTTP and 7) FTP
C1Ch11 Small Nets:3-True or False? There is no need to consider security threats and vulnerabilities when planning a network implementation. FALSE
C1Ch11 Small Nets:3-True or False? All network devices (routers, switches, end-user devices and security devices) must be secured TRUE
C1Ch11 Small Nets:3-What are common malware network threats? Malicious software such as 1) Viruses; 2) Trojan Horses and 3) Worms
C1Ch11 Small Nets:3-True or False? Antivirus software can detect every virus and prevent them from spreading through the network FALSE
C1Ch11 Small Nets:3-What is the most effective way to mitigate a worm attack? Download security updates from OS vendors and patch all vulnerable systems.
C1Ch11 Small Nets:4-True or False? Networks must also be protected from network attacks? TRUE
C1Ch11 Small Nets:4-What are three major categories of Network attacks? 1) Reconnaissance; 2) Access attacks and 3) Denial of Service
C1Ch11 Small Nets:4-True or False? There is only one way to protect a network from attack. FALSE
C1Ch11 Small Nets:5-What is the triple A of network security services that provide a primary framework to set up access control on a network device? 1) Authentication; 2) Authorization and 3) Accounting
C1Ch11 Small Nets:5-Explain the function of each of the triple A's? 1) Authentication controls who is permitted to access a network; 2) Authorization controls what users can do and 3) Accounting logs actions performed on the network
C1Ch11 Small Nets:6-What is the most effective security tool for protecting internal network users from external threats (configured properly)? A firewall.
C1Ch11 Small Nets:6-Where is a firewall typically positioned? Between two or more networks to control traffic between them
C1Ch11 Small Nets:7-True or False? Strong passwords help protect network devices. TRUE
C1Ch11 Small Nets:7-What are the unsecured and secured ways to remotely access network devices? 1) Unsecured=Telnet and 2) Secured=SSH
C1Ch11 Small Nets:8-When should a network admin be able to monitor and maintain network connectivity? After a network is implemented
C1Ch11 Small Nets:8-Name three common network connectivity testing tools for local and remote destinations: 1) ping; 2) telnet and 3) traceroute
C1Ch11 Small Nets:9-Which command on CISCO IOS can be used to verify and troubleshoot some of the basic hardware and software components used during the boot process? "Show version"
C1Ch11 Small Nets:9-Which command allows viewing of all network interface information on a router? "Show ip interface"
C1Ch11 Small Nets:9-Which command allows viewing brief network interface information on a router? "show ip interface brief"
C1Ch11 Small Nets:9-Which layer does Cisco's Discovery Protocol (CDP) run at? L2 - data link layer
C1Ch11 Small Nets:9-Since CDP runs at L2, what can Cisco devices do even if L3 connectivity does not exist? Learn about each other
C1Ch11 Small Nets:10-What is a best-practice for CISCO IOS configuration files such as startup-config and running-config? They should be archived
C1Ch11 Small Nets:10-Name two ways IOS configuration can be saved / archived: 1) Captured as text file or 2) Stored on a TFTP server
C1Ch11 Small Nets:10-If available, what other connection can be used to save / archive configurations? USB ports for USB storage
C1Ch11 Small Nets:10-Name two ways that IOS config can be restored from archive: Copied to router / switch from 1) TFTP server or 2) USB drive
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:1-What is the CISCO LAN switch power on boot sequence? 1) Sw loads POST from ROM; 2) Sw loads the boot loader (BL); 3) BL performs low-level CPU init; 4) BL init the flash fs on the sys board and 5) BL loads and stores a default IOS img into memory and launches IOS
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:2-Where is a Cisco switch power-on-self-test (POST) stored? In ROM
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:2-What does POST have responsibility to check? CPU subsystem - 1) CPU, 2) DRAM and 3) the portion of the flash device that makes up the flash file system
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:3-What is the boot loader? A small program stored in ROM that is started immediately after POST successfully completes.
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:3-What is recommended to provide a secure management connection to remote devices to prevent the sniffing of unencrypted usernames and passwords? Secure Shell (SSH)
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:4-What is the first thing that the boot loader initializes? Low-level CPU - 1) registers which control where physical memory is mapped; 2) The quantity of memory and 3) the memory speed
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:5-What is the second thing that the boot loader initializes? The flash file system on the system board
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:6-What is the third thing that the boot loader does before exiting? 1) Loads a default IOS image into memory and 2) Hands over control to the IOS
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:7-What controls the specific Cisco IOS file that is loaded? The BOOT environment variable
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:7-Once the CISCO IOS is loaded, what commands does it use to initialze and confgure the interfaces? startup-config
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:7-If Cisco IOS files are missing or damaged, what can be used to reload or recover from the problem? The boot loader
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:8-What generally does the series of LEDs on the front panel of a Cisco device indicate? Operational status
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:8-What types of info can be represented by Cisco device LEDs? 1) Port status and speed; and 2) Duplex setting
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:9-Where can an IP address be configured on a switch to allow for remote configuration of the device? SVI on the management VLAN
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:9-What is the command that will configure a default gateway beloning to the management vlan? "ip default-gateway"
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:9-What can be a cause of failure to remotely manage a switch? If the default gateway is not properly configured
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:10-What is an advantage of a switch that effectively doubles the communication rate? Full duplex communication between devices
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:10-To avoid errors, what is recommended to specify the speed and duplex settings of a switch interface? Set the parameters automatically
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:11-What is a reqirement to prevent such attacks as MAC address Flooding and DHCP Spoofing? Switch port security
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:11-True or False? Switch ports should be configured to allow only frames with specific source MAC addresses to enter TRUE
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:11-How should frames from unknown source MAC addresses be handled? They should be denied and the port shut down to prevent further attacks.
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:12-True or False? Port security is the only defense against network compromise. FALSE
C2Ch2 HW and Sec:12-Name three of ten best practices for network security: 1) security policy; 2) Shut unused ports; 3) strong passwords; 4) Control physical access; 5) Prefer HTTPS ; 6) Perform/test backups; 7) Train security awareness; 8) Encrypt; 9) Implement security hw/sw; and 10) Keep IOS software up-to-date
C2Ch4:1-What are the many key characteristics referred to when discussing networks: 1) Topology; 2) Speed; 3) Cost; 4) Security; 5) Availability; 6) Scalability and 7) Reliability
C2Ch4:2-True or False? Cisco routers and switches have many similarities? TRUE
C2Ch4:2-What is a distinguishing feature between switches and routers? The type of interfaces supported by each.
C2Ch4:3-What is the main purpose of a router? To connect multiple networks by forwarding packets from one network to the next.
C2Ch4:3-True or False? A router typically has a single interface? FALSE
C2Ch4:3-True or False? Each router interface is a member of a different IP network TRUE
C2Ch4:4-What does Cisco IOS use to determine the route to install into the IP routing table? Administrative Distance (AD)
C2Ch4:4-What is a list of networks known by the router? The routing table
C2Ch4:4-What addresses does a routing table contain? Addresses for its own interfaces (directly connected) as well as remote network's addresses
C2Ch4:4-What is a remote network? A network that can only be reached by forwarding the packet to another router
C2Ch4:5-What two ways can remote networks be added to the routing table? 1) Manually configured, static routes or 2) Dynamically configured through a dynamic routing protocol
C2Ch4:5-What is a pro and con of static routing? Pro is that static routes do not require as much router overhead; however, con is that static routes require more maintenance if topology is constantly changing or unstable
C2Ch4:6-True or False? Dynamic routing protocols automatically adjust to changes without any intervention from the admin. TRUE
C2Ch4:6-What is a trade-off for use of dynamic routing protocol? 1) require more CPU processing and 2) use a certain amount of link capacity for routing update messages.
C2Ch4:6-True or false? A routing table will never combine static and dynamic routes FALSE
C2Ch4:7-What OSI model layer does routing occur at? Layer 3
C2Ch4:7-How does a router participate in Layers 3, 2 and 1? Layer 3 IP packets are encapsulated into Layer 2 data link frames which are encoded into Layer 1 bits
C2Ch4:7-True or False? An Ethernet interface on a router participates in the ARP process like other hosts on the LAN TRUE
C2Ch4:8-True or False? The Cisco IP routing table is a flat database FALSE
C2Ch4:8-What is the benefit of Cisco router's hierarchical structure for the IP routing table? Its structure is used to speed up the lookup when locating routes to forward packets
C2Ch4:9-True or False? Components of the IPv6 routing table are very similar to the IPv4 routing table TRUE
C2Ch3 VLANs:13-Why are trunks used? To facilitate inter-switch communication by carrying traffic associated to multiple VLANs
C2Ch3 VLANs:13-How can Ethernet frames associated with distinct VLANs be differentiated as they traverse common trunk lines? IEEE 802.1Q frame tagging.
C2Ch3 VLANs:13-How is a trunk line configured? "switchport mode trunk"
C2Ch3 VLANs:13-What command can be used to check whether a trunk has been established between switches "show interfaces trunk"
C2Ch3 VLANs:14-What protocol manages trunk negotiation? Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP)
C2Ch3 VLANs:14-True or False? DTP is a Cisco proprietary protocol that is automatically enabled on Catalyst 2960 and 3560 series switches TRUE
C2Ch3 VLANs:15-What commands would be used to return a switch to factory default condition with 1 default VLAN? "delete flash:vlan.dat" and "erase startup-config" followed by "reload" or power-cycle
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:1-What is the process of routing traffic between different VLANS (via either router or multilayer switch) Inter-VLAN routing
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:1-What does inter-VLAN routing provide? Communication between devices isolated by VLAN boundaries
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:2-Why was legacy inter-VLAN routing inefficient? Legacy inter-VLAN routing required a physical router port PER configured VLAN
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:2-How did 'router on a stick' improve hardware utilization? Inter-VLAN routing relied on a router with subinterfaces trunked to a Layer 2 switch
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:2-What configuration is required for 'router on a stick'? 1) appropriate VLAN information and IP addressing configured on each logicial subinterface and 2) trunk encapsulation must be configured to match the trunking interface of the switch.
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:3-What are three topologies that allow inter-vlan routing? 1) Legacy inter-VLAN routing; 2) 'Router on a stick' and 3) Multi-layer (L3) switching
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:3-What two technologies are required for Layer 3 switching? 1) SVIs and 2) Routed ports
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:3-Where is Layer 3 switching normally configured? At the core and distribution layers of the hierarchical design model
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:3-What is a switch's routed port? It is a physical switch port that acts similarly to an interface on a router.
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:3-Which VLAN is a routed port associated with? None, not associated like an access port
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:4-Which mid-level switch can be used in multilayer inter-vlan routing? Catalyst 2960
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:4-True or False? Catalyst 2960 switches support static routing not dynamic protocols TRUE
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:4-What templates are required to allow IP routing on 2960 switches? SDM
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:5-True or False? Troubleshooting inter-VLAN routing with a router or layer 3 switch are similar TRUE
C2Ch5 InterVlan Route:5-What are four common inter-VLAN routing errors? 1) VLAN, 2) Trunk, 3) Layer 3 interface, and 4) IP address configuration issues
C2Ch6 Static route:1-What are networks that can only be reached by forwarding the packeted to another router? Remote networks.
C2Ch6 Static route:1-True or False? A few static routes are complex to be configured FALSE
C2Ch6 Static route:1-True or False? A large number of static routes can become cumbersome to maintain. TRUE
C2Ch6 Static route:1-Even when a dynamic routing protocol is implemented, what may be used? Static routes
C2Ch6 Static route:2-What address info is configured for a static route? They are configured with a next-hop IP address - commonly the IP address of the next-hop router.
C2Ch6 Static route:2-What is the performance impact of static route, next-hop IP address? The routing table process must resolve the address to an exit interface.
C2Ch6 Static route:2-What static route attribute is beneficial for point-to-point serial links To configure static route with an exit interface rather than next-hop address.
C2Ch6 Static route:2-When is a next-hop IP address and an exit interface required for a static route? On a multi-access network, such as Ethernet
C2Ch6 Static route:3-What is the administrative distance default for static routes? 1 (one)
C2Ch6 Static route:3-True or False? The Admin Dist is 1 for static routes configured with next-hop address as well as exit interface. TRUE
C2Ch6 Static route:4-What is required for a static route to be entered in the routing table when configured with a next-hop IP address? The next-hop IP address can be resolved through an exit interface.
C2Ch6 Static route:4-What happens if an exit interface to be used to forward a packet is not in the routing table? The static route is not included in the routing table
C2Ch6 Static route:5-How can several static routes be configured as a single summary route? Using CIDR
C2Ch6 Static route:5-What is the benefit of summarizing static routes? Allows faster routing table lookup processes by less routing table entries
C2Ch6 Static route:6-VLSM subnetting is similar to traditional subnetting. Rather than subnetting equally, what is done? The network is first subnetted and then the subnets are subnetted again.
C2Ch6 Static route:7-What is the ultimate summary route for IPv4 and IPv6? 1) IPv4 default route with a "" network address, "" subnet mask and 2) IPv6 the prefix/prefix-length of "::/0"
C2Ch6 Static route:7-What path will a router choose if there is not a more specific match in the routing table? The router will use the default route to forward the packet to another router.
C2Ch6 Static route:8-What is a floating static route? A static route configured to back up a main link by manipulating its administrative value.
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:1-What is the purpose of dynamic routing protocols? 1) discovery of remote networks; 2) maintaining up-to-date routing information; 3) choosing the best path to destination networks and 4) ability to find a new best path if the current path is no longer available
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:1-What is the resource tradeoff using dynamic routing protocols? Reduced administrative effort vs router's resources of CPU time and network link bandwidth
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:2-True or False? Dynamic routing is the best choice for large networks and static routing is better for stub networks. TRUE
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:3-When a network topology change occurs, what do dynamic protocols do? Propagate that information throughout the routing domain.
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:3-What is convergence? The process of bringing all routing tables to state of consistency.
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:4-What are classifications for routing protocols? 1) classful or classless; 2) distance-vector or link-state and 3) interior gateway protocol or exterior gateway protocol
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:5-What do distance-vector protocols use to choose path? They use routers as "sign-posts" along the path.
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:5-What information does a router know about a remote network? The distance or metric to reach that network and which path or interface to use to get there
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:5-Between distance-vector and link-state protocols; which can create a complete topology of the network by gathering information from all of the other routers Link-state
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:7-What is used by routing protocols to determine best path or shortest path to reach a destination network Metrics
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:7-Is a lower or higher metric indicating a better path? Lower
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:7-How can metrics be determined? 1) Hops; 2) Bandwidth; 3) delay; 4) reliability and 5) Load
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:8-When a router learns about a destination from more than one routing source; what does Cisco routers use to determine which source to use? Administrative Distance (AD)
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:8-True or False? Directly connected, static routes, and dynamic routing have unique administrative costs. TRUE
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:8-Is a lower or higher administrative value indicative the preferred the route source Lower
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:8-What is the preferred order of routing information? 1) Directly connected network 2) Static routes followed by 3) various dynamic routing protocols
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:9-What command displays the IPv4 routing protocol settings on the router? "show ip protocols"
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:9-What command displays the IPv6 routing protocol settings on the router? "show ipv6 protocols"
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:10-A link is an interface on a router for what routing protocol? link-state routing
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:10-What is link-state? Information about the state of those links is known as link-states.
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:10-Which algorithm do all link-state routing protocols to calculate the best path route Dijkstra
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:10-What is Dijkstra's algorithm commonly referred to? Shortest-path first (SPF)
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:10-How is shortest-path-first calculated? Uses the accumulated costs along each path, from source to destination, to determine the total cost of a route.
C2Ch8 OSPF:1-What is the current version of IPv4 OSPF? OSPF v2
C2Ch8 OSPF:1-What is the current version of IPv6 OSPF? OSPF v3
C2Ch8 OSPF:2-What is OSPF? 1) Classless, link-state routing protocol; 2) AD of 110, 3) Shows in in routing table as source of 'O'
C2Ch8 OSPF:3-How is OSPF enabled? "router ospf <process-id>" in global config mode
C2Ch8 OSPF:3-True or false? The OSPF <process-id> is locally significant - meaning that it does not need to match other OSPF routers to establish adjacencies with those neighbors TRUE
C2Ch8 OSPF:4-In single area OSPF, what should the wildcard-mask value be with an area-id of 0 The inverse of the subnet mask
C2Ch8 OSPF:5-What are the defaults for OSPF Hello packet sending frequency for a) Multiaccess and point-to-point and b) NBMA (Frame relay, X.25, ATM) to establish neighbor adjacencies? A) Every 10 seconds for multiaccess and point-to-point segments and B) every 30 seconds for NBMA segments
C2Ch8 OSPF:5-What is the default dead interval? Four times the Hello interval
C2Ch8 OSPF:6-What must match for routers to become adjacent with OSPF? 1) Hello interval; 2) Dead interval; 3) Network type and 4) subnet masks ALL match
C2Ch8 OSPF:6-What command is used to verify OSPF adjacencies? "show ip ospf neighbors"
C2Ch8 OSPF:7-What is an OSPF DR? OSPF elects a DR to act as a collection and distribution point for LSAs, send and received, in the multiaccess network.
C2Ch8 OSPF:7-What is an OSPF BDR? A BDR is elected to assume the role of the DR should the DR fail.
C2Ch8 OSPF:7-What designation do all other OSPF routers receive beyond the DR and BDR? DROTHERs
C2Ch8 OSPF:7-What is the LSA flow pattern in OSPF? All routers send their LSAs to the DR, which then floods the LSAs to all other routers in the multiaccess network
C2Ch8 OSPF:8-What information does the "show ip protocols" command display to verify important OSPF configuration information? 1) OSPF Process-id, 2) the router-id; 3) the networks that the router is advertising
C2Ch8 OSPF:9-Where is OSPFv3 enabled (since it is different than OSPFv2)? OSPFv3 is enabled on an interface and not under router configuration mode
C2Ch8 OSPF:9-What does OSPFv3 require to be configured? Link-local address on the interface
C2Ch8 OSPF:9-What is the prerequisite to enable prior to using OSPFv3? IPv6 Unicast routing must be enabled.
C2Ch8 OSPF:9-What else is required (in addition to link-local address) before an interface can be enabled for OSPFv3? A 32-bit router-id
C2Ch9 ACL:1-True or False? By default, a router does not filter traffic TRUE
C2Ch9 ACL:1-True or False? Traffic that enters the router is routed solely based on information within the routing table TRUE
C2Ch9 ACL:2-What does packet filtering control? Access to a network by analyzing the incoming and outgoing packets and either passing or dropping them based on criteria such as 1) source IP; 2) destination IP; and 3) packet's protocol
C2Ch9 ACL:2-What does packet-filtering use to determine whether to permit or deny traffic? Rules
C2Ch9 ACL:2-In addition to Layer 3, what other layer can routers perform packet filtering? Layer 4 - transport layer
C2Ch9 ACL:3-What is an Access Control List (ACL)? A sequential list of permit or deny statements
C2Ch9 ACL:3-What is the last statement of an IPv4 ACL? Always an implicit deny which blocks ALL traffic (not specifically allowed)
C2Ch9 ACL:3-How can implicit deny statements be overridden at the end of an ACL? By including a "permit ip any any" as the last statement
C2Ch9 ACL:4-What is the process for packet matching with ACLs when traffic passes through an interface configured with ACL? The router 1) Compares the info in the packet against each ACL entry - sequentially and 2) determines if the packet matches one of the statements; 3) If a match is found, then the packet is processed according to the ACL directive
C2Ch9 ACL:5-Which traffic direction(s) can ACLs be applied? Inbound and Outbound
C2Ch9 ACL:6-What is the scope of a Standard ACL? Standard ACL can be used to permit or deny ONLY from a SOURCE IPv4 address
C2Ch9 ACL:6-True or False? Destination and ports are evaluated with a Standard ACL rule? FALSE
C2Ch9 ACL:6-What is the best practice for placing a Standard ACL? Place it close to the DESTINATION
C2Ch9 ACL:7-What is the scope of an Extended ACL? Extended ACLs filter packets based on several attributes: 1) protocol type, 2) source or destination IPv4 address, and 3) source or destination ports.
C2Ch9 ACL:7-What is the best practice for placing an Extended ACL? Place it as close to the SOURCE as possible
C2Ch9 ACL:8-What are the number ranges for "access-list" global config command? Standard ACLs range from 1-99; Extended ACLs range from 100-199 and 2000-2699
C2Ch9 ACL:8-What other tag can a Standard or Extended have instead of a number? Name
C2Ch9 ACL:8-What commands allow the creation of named standard and extended ACLs? 1) standard-named is "ip access-list standard <name> and 2) extended-named is "ip access-list extended <name>"
C2Ch9 ACL:8-In addition to IP's, what can IPv4 ACE's use? Wildcard masks
C2Ch9 ACL:9-What command follows the configuration of an ACL to link it to an interface in interface-configuration mode? "ip access-group"
C2Ch9 ACL:9-What are the three P's for ACL creation? 1) one ACL "p"er Protocol; 2) "p"er direction and 3) "p"er interface
C2Ch9 ACL:10-What two steps are required to eliminate an implemented IPv4 ACL? 1) enter the "no ip access-group" on the interface and 2) "no access-list" command from global config mode
C2Ch9 ACL:11-What are two commands that can show access lists? 1) "show access-lists" and 2) "show running-config"
C2Ch9 ACL:11-What command is used to verify the IPv4 ACL on an interface and the direction in which it was applied? "show ip interface"
C2Ch9 ACL:12-How can VTY connections be secured with ACLs? 1) configure an appropriate ACL; 2) "access-class" command in line-configuration mode restricts incoming and outgoing connection to a VTY from the addresses in the ACL.
C2Ch9 ACL:13-True or False? IPv6 ACL names must be alphanumeric, case-sensitive and unique - like IPv4 TRUE
C2Ch9 ACL:13-True or False? IPv6 supports standard and extended ACLs FALSE
C2Ch9 ACL:14-What command creates an IPv6 ACL? From global-config mode; use "ipv6 access-list <name>"
C2Ch9 ACL:14-How do IPv6 ACLs determine how much of an IPv6 source/destination address should be matches? Wildcard masks or prefix-length? Prefix-length
C2Ch9 ACL:15-What command follows the configuration of an IPv6 ACL to link it to an interface? "ipv6 traffic-fliter"
C2Ch9 ACL:16-Unlike IPv4, what are the three implicit last statements of IPv6 ACL's? 1) "permit icmp any any nd-na"; 2) permit icmp any any nd-ds" and 3) "deny ipv6 any any"
C2Ch9 ACL:17-What do the two IPv6 ACL implicit 'permit icmp' commands achieve? They allow neighbor-discovery which is the IPv6 replacement for ARP.
C2Ch10 DHCP:1-True or False? All nodes on a network require unique IP addresses to communicate with other devices TRUE
C2Ch10 DHCP:1-Since the static assignment of IP addresses on a large network is burdensome, what protocol can be used to dynamically assign addresses? 1) DHCPv4 for IPv4 and 2) DHCPv6 for IPv6
C2Ch10 DHCP:2-What are the three address allocation mechanisms for DHCPv4? 1) Manual Allocation; 2) Automatic allocation; and 3) Dynamic Allocation
C2Ch10 DHCP:3-What is DHCPv4 Manual Allocation process? The admin assigns a pre-allocated IPv4 address to the client and DHCPv4 communicates only the IPv4 address to the device.
C2Ch10 DHCP:4-What is DHCPv4 Automatic Allocation process? DHCPv4 automatically assigns a static IPv4 address permanently (no lease) to a device from a pool of available addresses.
C2Ch10 DHCP:5-What is DHCPv4 Dynamic Allocation process? Being the most commonly used - DHCPv4 1) dynamically assigns (or leases) an IPv4 address 2) from a pool of addresses 3) for a limited period of time as configured on the server or 4) until the client no longer needs the address.
C2Ch10 DHCP:6-What is the general packet traffic for DHCPv4 mechanism? DHCPv4 involves the exchange of several different packets between the DHCPv4 server and the DHCPv4 client resulting in a lease of valid addressing information for a predefined time period
C2Ch10 DHCP:7-What are DHCPv4 (broadcast) messages originating from the client? 1) DHCPDISCOVER - allows all DHCPv4 server to hear the client request and 2) DHCPREQUEST - allows the DHCPv4 servers to hear receipt of addressing information
C2Ch10 DHCP:7-What are the DHCPv4 (unicast) messages originating from the server? 1) DHCPOFFER and 2) DHCPACK are sent as unicasts directly to the client requesting info
C2Ch10 DHCP:8-What are the two methods available for dynamic configuration of the IPv6 global unicast address? 1) Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) and 2) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (Stateful DHCPv6)
C2Ch10 DHCP:11-What is stateless autoconfiguration (SLAAC)? The client uses information provided by the IPv6 RA message to automatically select and configure unique IPv6 address.
C2Ch10 DHCP:11-What is stateless DHCPv6? Stateless DHCPv6 informs the client to use the information in the RA message for addressing, but additional configuration parameters are available from a DHCPv6 server
C2Ch10 DHCP:12-True or False? Stateful DHCPv6 is similar to DHCPv4 TRUE
C2Ch10 DHCP:12-What happens with the RA message when stateful DCHPv6 is in place? The client is directed to ignore the RA message and get its addressing information from the stateful DHCPv6 server
C2Ch10 DHCP:12-True or False? DHCPv6 server maintains IPv6 state information similar to a DHCPv4 server allocating addresses for IPv4 TRUE
C2Ch10 DHCP:13-Can a DHCP server be located on a different network segment than the DHCP client? Yes, through the use of a DHCP relay agent.
C2Ch10 DHCP:13-What does a DHCP relay agent do? The relay agent forwards specific broadcast messages originating from a LAN segment to a specified server located on a different LAN segment (in this case, a DHCP broadcast message would be forwarded to a DHCP server).
C2Ch10 DHCP:14-What are the troubleshooting tasks for both DHCPv4 and DHCPv6? 1) Resolve address conflicts; 2) Verify Physical connectivity; 3) Test connectivity using a Static IP address; 4) Verify switchport configuration and 5) test operation on the same subnet / VLAN.
C2Ch11 NAT:1-What is the primary purpose for Network Address Translation (NAT)? To help alleviate the depletion of IPv4 address space and allows for private, secure intranets without affecting ISP connection
C2Ch11 NAT:1-How does NAT for IPv4 benefit internet connectivity from LANs? NAT for IPv4 allows network administrators to use RFC 1918 private address space while providing connectivity to the Internet, using a single or limited number of public addresses.
C2Ch11 NAT:2-What are the drawbacks for NAT? Negative effects on 1) device performance; 2) security; 3) mobility and 4) end-to-end connectivity
C2Ch11 NAT:5-What are the three types of IPv4 NAT? 1) Static NAT; 2) Dynamic NAT; and 3) Port Address Translation (PAT)
"C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:9-Five classes of IPv4 addresses: Five classes of IPv4 addresses: a : 000-127 : /8; Host b : 128-191 : /16; Host c : 192-223 : /24; Host d : 224-239 : -; Multicast e : 240-255 : - Experimental"
"C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:10-Special IPv4 addresses: Special IPv4 addresses: 1) - addresses used to communicate with current network 2) - Loopback 3) - Link-local (APIPA) 4) - local broadcast"
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:11-What are the three types of IPv6 addresses Three types of IPv6 addresses: Unicast "send to one address", 2) Anycast "send to the closest member of the group" and 3) Multicast "Send to every member of a group" (no broadcast)
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:12-What are the three types of IPv6 unicast addresses Three types of IPv6 unicast addresses: 1) Global Unicast - 2000::/3, 2) Unique local FD00::/8 (private internet, not internet routable) and 3) Link local - FE80::/10 (subnet only; not routable)
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:13-What is the IPv6 address prefix for multicast? IPv6 Multicast prefix is FF00::/8
C1Ch6 Netwk Layer L3:14-What are the four common IPv6 address prefixes Four common types of IPv6 address prefixes: 1) Global Unicast - 2000::/3, 2) Unique local FD00::/8 3) Link local - FE80::/10 and 4) Multicast FF00::/8
C2Ch10 DHCP:20-What are the four messages used in DHCPv4 dynamic allocation initally? 1) DHCPDISCOVER broadcast L2 and L3; 2) DHCPOFFER unicast L2; 3) DHCPREQUEST broadcast and 4) DHCPACK unicast
C2Ch10 DHCP:21-What are the two messages used in DHCPv4 dynamic allocation renewal? 1) DHCPREQUEST unicast and 2) DHCPACK unicast
C2Ch10 DHCP:22-What is the DCHPDISCOVER message construction? The IPv4 DHCP client sends a directed IP broadcast. The server notes that the GIADDR field is blank, therefore the client is on the same segment. The server also notes the MAC address of the client in the packet.
C2Ch10 DHCP:23-What is the IPv4 DHCPOFFER message construction? The IPv4 DHCP server picks up an IP address from the available pool for that segment as well as other segment parms. IPv4 DHCP server puts them in the IPv4 DHCP packet. The IPv4 DHCP server uses the client MAC address to send back.
C2Ch10 DHCP:24-What is the IPv4 DHCPREQUEST message construction? When the client receives IPv4 DHCPOFFER, it sends back IPv4 DHCPREQUEST - which serves as a binding acceptance notice to the selected IPv4 DHCP server and an implicit decline to other responding IPv4 DHCP servers.
C2Ch10 DHCP:25-What is the IPv4 DHCPACK message construction? On receiving the IPv4 DHCPREQUEST message, the server veriies the lease information with the IPv4 DHCPACK message.
C2Ch10 DHCP:26-What are two methods in which IPv6 global unicast addresses can be assigned dynamically: 1) ICMPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) and 2) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (Stateful DHCPv6)
C2Ch10 DHCP:27-What is the IPv6 Router Solicitation (RS) message? RS message is sent from IPv6 client configured for SLAAC to the IPv6 all-routers multicast address FF02::2 to request addressing.
C2Ch10 DHCP:28-What is the IPv6 Router Advertisement (RA) message? RA messages are sent from routers to clients to provide IPv6 prefix and prefix length of the local segment to allow the client to create its own IPv6 global unicast address.
C2Ch10 DHCP:29-What is the frequency and destination of the IPv6 Router Advertisement (RA) message? By default, Cisco routers send RA messages every 200 seconds to the IPv6 all-nodes multicast address FF02::1 AND in response to a RS request.
C2Ch10 DHCP:30-True or False? ICMPv6 SLAAC is statless - there is no SLAAC server that knows which IPv6 addresses are being used and available TRUE
C2Ch10 DHCP:31-What are the three types of IPv6 node addressing? 1) ICMPv6 SLAAC; 2) Stateless DHCPv6 and 3) Stateful DHCPv6)
C2Ch10 DHCP:32-What are two methods that an IPv6 node can create its own unique Interface ID (IID) 1) EUI-64 - based on interface MAC address and 2) Randomly generated by client OS
C2Ch10 DHCP:33-Because ICMPv6 SLAAC is stateless, before the node can use its newly created IPv6 address, how is uniqueness enforced? 1) Node sends ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with its own address as the target IPv6 address. 2) If no match responds, then the IPv6 adress is unique and is used - 3) else it must regenerate until unique.
C2Ch10 DHCP:34-What two flags are used in IPv6 RA messages from the router to inform the client of the prescribed addressing scheme? 1) Managed Address Configuration Flag -- "M" and 2) Other Configuration flag -- "O"
C2Ch10 DHCP:35-What are the three combinations of the IPv6 RA message flags? 1) M:0, O:0 = SLAAC; 2) M:0, O:1 = RA & Stateless DHCPv6; 3) M:1, O:0 = Stateful DHCPv6 only
C2Ch11 NAT:10-Private internet addresses defined in RFC 1918: Class A: - -; Class B: - -; Class C: - -
C2Ch11 NAT:11-What are the four of NAT address terms? 1) Inside local address; 2) Inside global address; 3) Outside global address; 4) Outside local address
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:11-What are the IPv4 distance-vector routing protocols 1) RIPv1 (legacy) - IGP, classful protocol 2) IGRP (legacy) - IGP, classful protocol developed by Cisco, removed from IOS 3) RIPv2 - IGP, classless protocol 4) EIGRP - IGP, classless protocol developed by Cisco
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:12-What are the IPv4 link-state routing protocols 1) OSPF - IGP, link-state, classless protocol 2) IS-IS - IGP, link-state, classless protocol
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:13-What are the IPv4 path-vector routing protocols BGP - EGP, path-vector, classless protocol
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:14-What is AD of connected interface? 0
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:15-What is AD of static route? 1
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:16-What is AD of EIGRP? 90
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:17-What is AD of IGRP? 100
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:18-What is AD of OSPF? 110
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:19-What is AD for IS-IS? 115
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:20-What is AD for RIP? 120
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:21-What is AD for External EIGRP? 170
C2Ch7 Dynamic Routing:22-What is AD for unknown? 255
C2Ch8 OSPF:10-What are the four major phases that an OSPF router performs when initially connected to a network? 1) Create adjacencies with neighbors; 2) Exchange routing information; 3) Calculate the best routes; 4) Reach convergence
C2Ch8 OSPF:11-What are the seven states that OSPF progresses while attempting to reach convergence? Establish neighbor adjacencies [1) Down state; 2) Init state; 3) Two-Way state;] Sync OSPF databases [4) ExStart state; 5) Exchange state; 6) Loading state;] 7) Full state -- Do-I-Think-ExS-Exc-Live-Fully
C2Ch8 OSPF:12-OSPF state 1: Down state No Hello packets being received
C2Ch8 OSPF:13-OSPF state 2: Init State Hello packets received from neighbor containing the sending-router's Router-ID
C2Ch8 OSPF:14-OSPF state 3: Two-Way state 1) On Ethernet links - elect a Designated Router (DR) and a Backup DR (BDR); 2) On point to point links, they skip election process
C2Ch8 OSPF:15-OSPF state 4: ExStart State Negotiate master/slave relationship and DBD packet sequence number. The master initiates the DBD packet exchange.
C2Ch8 OSPF:16-OSPF state 5: Exchange State Routers exchange DBD packets. If additional router info is required, then transition to #6 Loading else transition to #7 Full.
C2Ch8 OSPF:17-OSPF state 6: Loading state LSRs and LSUs are used to gain additional route information. Routes are processed using the SPF algorithm.
C2Ch8 OSPF:18-OSPF state 7: Full state Routers have converged
C2Ch8 OSPF:19-What are the five link state packets (LSPs) that OSPF use to establish/maintain neighbor adjacencies and exchange routing updates? Type 1 - Hello packet, Type 2 - Database Description (DBD), Type 3 - Link-State Request (LSR) packet, Type 4 - Link-State Update (LSU) packet and Type 5 - Link-State Acknowlegdgement (LSAck) packet.
C2Ch8 OSPF:20-OSPF link-state Type 1: Hello packet Used to establish and maintain adjacency with other OSPF routers.
C2Ch8 OSPF:21-OSPF link-state Type 2: Database Description (DBD) packet Contains an abbreviated list of the sending router’s LSDB and is used by receiving routers to check against the local LSDB. The LSDB must be identical on all link-state routers within an area to construct an accurate SPF tree.
C2Ch8 OSPF:22-OSPF link-state Type 3: Link-State Request (LSR) packet Receiving routers can then request more information about any entry in the DBD by sending an LSR.
C2Ch8 OSPF:23-OSPF link-state Type 4: Link-State Update (LSU) packet Used to reply to LSRs and to announce new information. LSUs contain seven different types of LSAs.
C2Ch8 OSPF:24-OSPF link-state Type 5: Link-State Acknowledgment (LSAck) packet When an LSU is received, the router sends an LSAck to confirm receipt of the LSU. The LSAck data field is empty. Expected for type 2, 3 and 4
Created by: Jbrissette