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HHAP Semester 1

Fall Semester Honors Anatomy Final

TermDefinition
Subatomic particle parts of an atom, including protons, electrons, and neutrons
Atom smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element
Molecule particle composed of two or more joined atoms
Macromolecule very large molecule
Organelle a structure or compartment in cells that houses the biochemical reactions that carry out a specific function
Cell the structural and functional unit of an organism
Tissue assembled group of similar cells that performs a specialized function
Organ structure consisting of two or more tissues with a specialized function
Organ System group of organs coordinated to carry on a specialized function
Organsim an individual living thing
Movement change in position of the body or of a body part; motion of an internal organ
Responsiveness reaction to a change inside or outside the body
Growth increase in body size without change in shape
Reproduction production of new organism and new cells
Respiration obtaining oxygen, removing carbon dioxide, and releasing energy from foods (some forms of life do not use oxygen in respiration)
Digestion breakdown of food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used
Absorption passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids
Circulation movement of substances in body fluids
Assimilation changing of absorbed substances into different chemical forms
Excretion removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions
Receptors provide information about specific conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment. A receptor may be a molecule or a cell.
Control center includes a set point, which is a particular value, such as body temperature at 37*C or 98.6*F.
Effectors such as muscle glands, cause responses that alter conditions in the internal environment.
Axial portion includes the head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular portion includes the upper and lower limbs
Cranial cavity houses the brain
Vertebral canal (spinal cavity) contains the spinal cord and is surrounded by sections of the backbone (vertebrae)
Thoracic cavity/abdominopelvic cavity organs within these last two cavities are called viscera.
Diaphragm a broad, thin muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.
Mediastinum region between the lungs that separates the thorax into two compartments that contain the right and left lungs.
Abdominal cavity include the stomach, liver, spleen, gall bladder, kidneys, and the small and large intestines.
Pelvic cavity the portion of the abdominopelvic cavity enclosed by the pelvic bones. Contains the terminal end of the large intestine, the urinary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs.
Integumentary System (organs associated) include the skin and accessory organs such as the hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands.
Skeletal System (organs associated) consists of the bones as well as the ligaments and cartilages that bind bones together at joints.
Muscular System (organs associated) the muscles are the organs of the muscular system
Integumentary System (function) protect underlying tissues, help regulate body temperature, house a variety of sensory receptors, and synthesize certain products.
Skeletal System (function) provide frameworks and protective shields for softer tissues, serve as attachments for muscle, and act together with muscles when body parts move. Tissues within bones also produce blood cells and store inorganic salts.
Muscular System (function) by contracting and pulling their ends closer together, muscles provide the forces that move body parts. Muscles also help maintain posture and are the primary source of body heat.
Receptors provide information about specific conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment. A receptor may be a molecule or a cell.
Control center includes a set point, which is a particular value, such as body temperature at 37*C or 98.6*F.
Effectors such as muscle glands, cause responses that alter conditions in the internal environment.
Axial portion includes the head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular portion includes the upper and lower limbs
Cranial cavity houses the brain
Vertebral canal (spinal cavity) contains the spinal cord and is surrounded by sections of the backbone (vertebrae)
Thoracic cavity/abdominopelvic cavity organs within these last two cavities are called viscera.
Diaphragm a broad, thin muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.
Mediastinum region between the lungs that separates the thorax into two compartments that contain the right and left lungs.
Abdominal cavity include the stomach, liver, spleen, gall bladder, kidneys, and the small and large intestines.
Pelvic cavity the portion of the abdominopelvic cavity enclosed by the pelvic bones. Contains the terminal end of the large intestine, the urinary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs.
Integumentary System (organs associated) include the skin and accessory organs such as the hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands.
Skeletal System (organs associated) consists of the bones as well as the ligaments and cartilages that bind bones together at joints.
Muscular System (organs associated) the muscles are the organs of the muscular system
Integumentary System (function) protect underlying tissues, help regulate body temperature, house a variety of sensory receptors, and synthesize certain products.
Skeletal System (function) provide frameworks and protective shields for softer tissues, serve as attachments for muscle, and act together with muscles when body parts move. Tissues within bones also produce blood cells and store inorganic salts.
Muscular System (function) by contracting and pulling their ends closer together, muscles provide the forces that move body parts. Muscles also help maintain posture and are the primary source of body heat.
Third decade when a few gray hairs, faint lines etched into facial skin, and minor joint stiffness in the morning.
Fourth or fifth decade hair color fades and skin etches become wrinkles, the first signs of adult-onset disorders may appear, such as elevated blood pressure that one day may be considered hypertension, and slightly high blood glucose that could become type 2 diabetes or mellit
Sixth decade sees grayer or whiter hair, more and deeper skin wrinkles, and waning immunity that makes vaccinations against influenza and other infectious diseases important.
Superior means a part is above another part (the thoracic cavity is superior to the abdominopelvic cavity)
Inferior means a part is below another part (the neck is inferior to the head)
Anterior (ventral) means towards the front (the eyes are anterior to the brain)
Posterior (dorsal) means towards the back (the pharynx is posterior to the oral cavity)
Medial refers to an imaginary midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves. A part is medial if it is closer to midline than another part (the nose is medial to the eyes)
Lateral means towards the side, away from the midline (the ears are lateral to the eyes)
Bilateral refers to paired structures, one on each side (the lungs are bilateral)
Ipsilateral refers to structures on the same side (the right lung and the right kidney are ipsilateral)
Contralateral refers to structures on the opposite side (a patient with a fractured right leg would have to bear weight on the contralateral—in this case, left—lower limb)
Proximal describes a part closer to a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part (the elbow is proximal to the wrist)
Distal is the opposite of proximal. It means a particular body part is farther from a point of attachment to the trunk (the fingers are distal to the wrist)
Superficial means near the surface (the epidermis is the superficial layer of the skin)
Deep describes more internal parts (the dermis is the deep layer of the skin)
Sagittal refers to a lengthwise cut that divides the body into the right and left portions. If a sagittal section passes along the midline and divides the body into equal parts, it is called median (midsagittal).
Sagittal (part 2) A sagittal section lateral to midline is called parasagittal
Transverse (horizontal) refers to a cut that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
Frontal (coronal) refers to a section that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
Epigastric Region the upper middle portion
Left and Right Hypochondriac Regions the left/right side of the epigastric region
Umbilical Region the central portion
Left and Right Lumbar Regions on the left/right side of the umbilical region
Hypogastric Region the lower middle portion
Left and Right Iliac (Inguinal) Regions on the left/right side of the hypogastric region
Arm The part of the microscope that connects the tube to the base. When carrying a microscope, grab the arm with one hand and place your other hand under the base.
Base The bottom of the microscope, used for support.
Body Tube the long tube that holds the eyepiece and connects it to the objectives. 3. nosepiece-the rotating part of the microscope at the bottom of the body tube; it holds the objectives.
Course Adjustment Knob stage-large, flat area under the objectives; it has a hole in it that allows light through; the specimen/slide is placed on the stage for viewing.
Diaphragm (disc or iris) Many microscopes have a rotating disk under the stage. This diaphragm has different sized holes and is used to vary the intensity and size of the cone of light that is projected upward into the slide.
Fine Adjustment Knob A round knob on the side of the microscope used to fine-tune the focus of your specimen after using the coarse adjustment knob.
High-power Objective Lens A high power objective lens is an important part of a microscope that magnifies up to 40 times. This lens is used for observing fine details. The strength is second only to an oil immersion objective lens, which magnifies up to 100 times.
Light Source The condenser is a lens that focuses the main light source through the sample and into the objective lens. The user can adjust the light focusing with a diaphragm.
Low-power Objective Lens The low-power objective on a microscope is the shortest or second shortest objective lens found on standard laboratory microscopes. Low-power objective lenses typically add 10x to the magnifying power of the microscope.
Mechanical Stage A mechanical way to move the slide around on your stage. It consists of a slide holder and two knobs. Turn one knob and the slide moves toward or away from you. Turn the other knob and the slide moves left and right.
Ocular Lens the ocular, or eyepiece lens that one looks into and 2) the objective lens, or the lens closest to the object.
Oil Immersion Objective Lens oil immersion is a technique used to increase the resolving power of a microscope. This is achieved by immersing both the objective lens and the specimen in a transparent oil of high refractive index.
Power Switch an electrical switch present at the bottom of the microscope in order to switch of the light source i.e., the illuminator.
Revolving Nosepiece This is the part that holds two or more objective lenses and can be rotated to easily change power. Objective Lenses: Usually you will find 3 or 4 objective lenses on a microscope. They almost always consist of 4X, 10X, 40X and 100X powers.
Objective Lenses Usually you will find 3 or 4 objective lenses on a microscope. They almost always consist of 4X, 10X, 40X and 100X powers.
Scanning power Objective Lens the smallest lens is the scanning objective lens. It measures at 4X, and it is the shortest lens of the four.
Stage able to move the slide around by turning two knobs. One moves it left and right, the other moves it up and down.
Stage Opening the stage opening is a piece of the microscope that the disc with the specimen.
Epidermis the outer layer composed of stratified squamous epithelium
Dermis the inner layer is thicker than the epidermis and is made up of connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers, smooth muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and blood.
Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis is formed by masses of areolar and adipose tissues. The collagenous and elastic fibers of this layer are continuous with those of the dermis.
Nails The whitish, thickened, half-moon-shaped region (lunula) at the base of a nail plate is the most active growing region. The epithelial cells here divide and the new cells become keratinized, giving ris
Hair Follicle Extends from the surface into the dermis and contains the hair root. Epidermal cells in the hair bulb at its base are nourished from dermal blood vessels in projection of connective tissue at the deep end of the follicle. Composed of dead epidermal cells.
Skin Glands Sebaceous glands contain groups of specialized epithelial cells, usually associated with hair follicles. Sebum is the resulting mixture of fatty material and cellular debris and is secreted into hair follicles through short ducts.
Sweat glands or sudorferous glands (accessory structures) Widespread in the skin. Each gland consists of a tiny tube that originates as a ball-shaped coil in the deeper dermis or superficial subcutaneous layer.
Eccrine glands (accessory structures) The most numerous sweat glands which respond throughout life to body temperature elevated by environmental and heat or physical exercise.
Apocrine glands (accessory structures) - the secretions of certain sweat glands, develop a scent as skin bacteria metabolize them. Become active at puberty, can wet certain areas of skin when a person is emotionally upset, frightened, or in pain.
Nails (function) protective coverings on the ends of the fingers and toes
Hair Follicle (function) each hair develops from a group of epidermal cells at the base of a this tubelike depression
Skin Glands (function) Holocrine glands and their cells produce globules of fatty material that accumulate, swelling and bursting the cells.
Bone Tissue bone cells that come together to form tissue and a specific bone structure
Cartilage fibers in gel, in bone the calcified cement substance, models for bone growth, smooths joint surfaces, and provides support
Dense connective tissue compact bone is different than spongy bone, Haversian system in the dense
Blood bone has its own rich blood supply, hematopoiesis occurs within the marrow and cavities of bones
Nervous tissue tissue connects the nervous system and the muscular system to provide function for movement
Long bone forearm and thigh bone
Short bone bones of wrists and ankles
Flat bone ribs, the scapulae, and some bones of the skull
Irregular bone the vertebrae that compose the backbone, and many facial bones
Compact bone osteocytes and layers of extracellular matrix concentrically clustered around a central canal form a cylinder-shaped unit called an osteon. Central canals contain blood vessels and nerve fibers surround by loose connective tissue.
Spongy bone composed of osteocytes and extracellular matrix as well, bone cells do not surround central canals. Cells lie within the trabeculae getting nutrients from the substances diffusing into the canaliculi, leading to the surfaces of these thin, bony plates.
Intramembranous bones Bones that originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissues. During development, membrane like layers of unspecialized, or relatively undifferentiated connective tissues appear at the sites of the future bones.
Intramembranous bones (part 2) Dense networks of blood vessels supply these connective tissue layers. (bone forming cells called osteoblasts deposit bony matrix around themselves)
Endochondral bones Most bones of the skeleton. Develop from masses of hyaline cartilage shaped like future bony structures. These cartilaginous models grow rapidly.
Endochondral bones (part 2) The surrounding matrix breaks down, and the cartilage cells die and degenerate. As this happens a periosteum forms from connective tissue that encircles the developing structure. Blood vessels and partially differentiated connective tissue cells thicken.
Axial Skeleton Consists of the bony and cartilaginous parts that support and protect organs of the head, neck, and trunk.
Skull Composed of the cranium (houses the brain) and the facial bones
Hyoid bone Located in the neck between the lower jaw and the larynx and supports the tongue.
Vertebral Column Spinal column, consists of many vertebrae
Sacrum Part of the pelvis
Coccyx A small tailbone formed by the fusion of four vertebrae, attached to the end of the sacrum.
Thoracic cage Protects the organs of the thoracic cavity and the upper abdominal cavity
Ribs Articulate posteriorly with the thoracic vertebrae
Sternum Breastbone, most of the ribs are attached anteriorly
Appendicular Skeleton Consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the bones that anchor the limbs to the axial skeleton.
Pectoral Griddle Formed by a scapula, or shoulder blade, and a clavicle, or collarbone, on both sides of the body. Connects the bone of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton and aids in upper limb movements.
Upper Limb Consists of a humerus, or arm bone; to forearm bones—radius and ulna—and a hand. The humerus, radius, and ulna articulate with each other at the elbow joint.
Carpals There are eight carpals, or wrist bones.
Metacarpals The five bones of the palm
Phalanges The fourteen finer bones
Pelvic Griddle Formed by two hip bones attached to each other anteriorly and to the sacrum posteriorly. Connect the bones of the lower limbs to the axial skeleton.
Pelvis Formed by the sacrum and coccyx, which protects the lower abdominal and internal reproductive organs.
Lower Limb Consists of a femur, or thigh bone, two leg bones—a large tibia, or shin bone, and a slender fibula—and a foot.
Patella Kneecap that covers the anterior surface.
Tarsals The seven ankle bones
Metatarsals The five bones of the instep
Phalanges The fourteen bones of the toes
Fascia Layers of fibrous connective tissue that encloses a muscle
Tendon Cordlike or bandlike mass of dense connective tissue that connects a muscle to a bone
Aponeuroses Sheet of connective tissue that attaches muscles to bone and other muscles
Epimysium The layer of connective tissue that closely surrounds a skeletal muscle
Perimysium Another layer of connective tissue that extends inward from the epimysium and separates the muscle tissue into small sections
Endomysium Each muscle fiber within a fascicle lies within a layer of connective tissue in the form of a thin covering
Fasicle These sections of the perimysium contain bundles of skeletal muscle fibers
Sarcomere Structural and functional unit of myofibril
Titin Protein that attaches myosin filaments to z lines in muscle
Troponin Protein that functions with tropomyosin to block muscle contraction until calcium ions are present
Tropomyosin Protein that blocks muscle contraction until calcium ions are present
Sarcoplasmic reticulum Membranous network of channels and tubules in a muscle fiber, corresponding to the endoplasmic reticulum of other cells.
Transverse tubules Membranous channel that extends deep into the cell from a muscle fiber membrane
Cisternae Enlarged portion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum near the actin and myosin filaments of a muscle fiber.
Triad Group of three structures; in muscle, two cisternae, and a transverse tubule
Myosin Thick filaments that make up myofibrils
Actin Thin filaments that make up myofibrils
Synapse Neurons communicate with the cells that they control by releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters, at this location
Neuromuscular Junction The synapse where a motor neuron axon and skeletal muscle fiber meet
Nervous System (organs associated) consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.
Endocrine System (organs associated) includes the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, as well as
Cardiovascular System (organs associated) includes the heart, arteries, capillaries, veins, and blood.
Lymphatic System (organs associated) composed of the lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen.
Digestive System (organs associated) includes the mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine and large intestine.
Respiratory System (organs associated) the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Urinary System (organs associated) consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Reproductive System (male, organs associated) the male reproductive system includes the scrotum, testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, and penis.
Reproductive System (female, organs associated) The female reproductive system consists of the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva.
Nervous System (function) nerve cells within these organs use a bioelectrical signal called a nerve impulse (a wave of action potentials) in combination with a chemical signal (a neurotransmitter) to communicate with one another and with muscles and glands. >could not fit all info
Endocrine System (function) includes all the glands that secrete chemical messengers, called hormones.
Cardiovascular System (function) the heart is a muscular pump that helps force blood through the blood vessels. Blood transports gases, nutrients, hormones and wastes. It carries oxygen from the lungs >could not fit all info
Created by: talialaur16