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Reproductive system

Male gametes Spermatozoa
Female gametes Ova
XX = Female
XY = Male
Autosomes come in pairs: __ pairs Each in a pair carries same complement of genes 22 ;
Haploid: 23 chromosomes: 22 autosomes, 1 ___ Sex
Diploid: ___ chromosomes: ___ autosomes, ___ sex 46 ; 44 ; 2
Produce gametes in males Gonads
Secrete sex hormones: Male ; Female Testes ; Ovaries
Act of mating Copulation
First two months: Embryo
After two months: Fetus
About nine months: Parturition or birth
Sex is determined by the... Male
Sperm storage Vas deferens
Sperm maturation Epididymis
Sperm production Seminiferous tubules
Site of sperm production, maturation and storage Male gonads
Secrete testosterone Leydig cells (interstitial cells)
Support sperm development [cells] Sertoli cells (epithelial cells)
Male copulatory organ Penis
Secrete alkaline fluid with fructose, enzymes, and prostaglandins Seminal vesicles
Secrete citrate, zinc and enzymes Prostate gland
Secrete viscous fluid with mucus Bulbourethral glands
Gonadotropins FSH, LH
Stimulates gametogenesis FSH
Stimulates androgen secretion LH
Simulates spermatogenesis Testosterone
Causes development of secondary sexual characteristics Testosterone
Causes sex drive in men Testosterone
Causes protein synthesis in skeletal muscle Testosterone
Sperm Head Chromosomes
Where are enzymes necessary for fertilization found on the sperm? Acrosome
Midpiece [sperm] Mitochondria
Whiplike movements propel sperm Tail
[Step 1] Spermatozoa released into lumen of ______ _______... for how long? seminiferous tubules ; Immotile – 20 days
[Step 2] Move to epididymis by peristaltic contractions and flow of lumenal fluid where they.. Acquire motility
[Step 3] Move to ___ _______ by peristalsis vas deferens
[Step 4] Remain in ___ ______ until ejaculation vas deferens
[1] Response to mechanical stimulation continues from erection to ________ [2] Neural activity shifts from __________ control to ___________ control [1] Emission [2] Parasympathetic ; sympathetic
Results in the movement of semen (sperm and fluid) into urethra Contractions of epididymis, vas deferens and ejaculatory duct combined with Secretions from seminal vesicles and prostate....
Cyclic changes in activity Menstrual cycle
Restricted periods of fertility Ovulation
Site of fetal development Uterus
[3] layers of the uterus Outer layer = perimetrium Middle layer = myometrium Inner layer = endometrium
Smooth muscle, thickest layer of the uterus Myometrium
Epithelial cells and connective tissue [uterus] Perimetrium
Layer of epithelial cells, Layer of connective tissue, Numerous glands [uterus] Endometrium
Also called fallopian tubes or oviducts Uterine Tubes
Site of fertilization Uterus
______ >> ova Oogonia
Females: number of _______ is fixed prior to birth Oogonia
Repeated changes in the ovary and uterus through time – Ovarian cycle – Uterine cycle
Follicular phase Menstruation > ovulation – ~14 days
Luteal phase Ovulation > before menstruation – 14 days
Ovarian Cycle [2 parts] Follicular phase, Luteal phase
Ovarian cycle: [Step 1] Primary follicles mature and secretes ________ Estrogen
Ovarian cycle: [Step 2] Primary _______ undergoes meiosis and produces secondary oocyte and polar body Oocyte ;
Ovarian cycle: [Step 3] Secondary oocyte is _________ Ovulated
Ovarian cycle: [Step 4] Remaining follicle cells become ______ ______ and secretes estrogen and progesterone Corpus luteum
Ovarian cycle: [Step 5] If pregnancy does not occur the corpus luteum Disintegrates
Uterine cycle [Step 1] ___________ is considered the start of the cycle Menstruation
Uterine cycle [Step 2] ________ thickens Endometrium
Uterine cycle [Step 3] Ovulation and formation of the _____ ______ occur Corpus luteum
Uterine cycle [Step 4] ________ _______ to endometrium increases Blood supply
Uterine cycle [Step 5] Corpus luteum ___________ if no fertilization occurs Degenerates
Uterine cycle [Step 6] ___________ begins again Menstruation
_____ is first secreted from follicle, then from the corpus luteum Estrogen
_____secreted from corpus luteum Progesterone
LH and FSH secreted from Anterior pituitary
Estrogens and progesterone inhibit___ and ___secretion LH, FSH
If fertilization and subsequently pregnancy occurs.. ____ _____ _____ is released by the embryo Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Prevents the degeneration of the corpus luteum Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
HCG is detectable in mother’s blood__-__ days after fertilization and urine < __ weeks 7-9 ; 2
__-__ months into pregnancy placenta produces enough estrogen and progesterone to keep ovarian and uterine cycles from proceeding 2-3
Created by: 811969848858069



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