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CIS Exam 3

TermDefinition
Business Intelligence System Information systems that process operation, social, and other data to identify patterns, relationships, and trends for use by business professionals.
Data Mart Data collection, smaller than a data warehouse that addresses the needs of a particular department or functions area of the business
BI Analysis The process of creating business intelligence. Four categories are reporting, data mining, BigData, and knowledge management.
Advanced Persistent Threat A network attack in which an unauthorized person gains access to a network and stays there undetected for a long time. The intention of an APT attack is to steal data rather than to cause damage to the network or organization.
Adware Software that automatically displays or downloads advertising material (often unwanted) when a user is online.
Agile Development Adaptive project management that is used for projects including processes, IS, and applications
Application A combination of hardware, software, and data that is to be developed for an information system
As-Is Model A model that represents the current situation and processes
Asymmetric Encryption Two keys are used; one key encodes the message and the other decodes the message
Authentication The process whereby an information system verifies a user
B.I. Five Standard Components Hardware, Software, Data, Procedures, People
Baseline WBS The initial work breakdown structure that shows the planned tasks, dependencies, durations and resource assignments
BI Analysis The process of creating business intelligence. Four categories are reporting, data mining, BigData, and knowledge management.
BI Application The software component of a BI system
BI Server A web server application that is purpose-built for the publishing of BI
BigData A term used to describe data collections that are characterized by huge volume, rapid velocity, and great variety
Biometric Authentication The use of personal physical characteristics, such as fingerprints, to authenticate users
Brook’s Law “Adding manpower to a late software project makes it later”
Brute Force Attack A password cracking program that tries every possible combination of characters
Business Analyst Someone who analyzes an organization or business domain (real or hypothetical) and documents its business or processes or systems
Business Intelligence The processing of operational, social, and purchased data, and employee knowledge to expose solutions, patterns and trends of importance to the organization.
Business Intelligence System Information systems that produce business intelligence
Business Process A network of activities that generates value by transforming inputs into outputs
Business Process Management (BPM) A cyclical process for systematically creating, assessing, and altering business processes
Business Process Modeling Notion (BPMN) Standard set of terms and graphical notions for documenting business processes
Chief Information Officer (CIO) Title: Principal manager of the IS department
Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) Title: Person who manages security for the organizations information systems and information
Chief Security Officer (CSO) Title: Person who manages security for all the organization’s assets
Chief Technology Officer (CTO) Title: Head of the technology group
Cluster Analysis The task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (a cluster) are more like each other than to those in other clusters
COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and related Technology) A set of standard practices that are used in the assessment stage of the BPM cycle
Confidence The probability estimate that two items will be purchased together
Configuration Control A set of management policies and practices that system developers use to maintain control over a project’s resources
Content Management Systems IS that support the management and delivery of documentation including reports and other expressions of employee knowledge
Control Flow A BOMN symbol that documents the flow of activity in a business process
Cookie Data that a website stores on your computer to record something about its interaction with you.
Cost Feasibility An assessment of the cost of an information system development project that compares estimated costs to the available budget
Critical Path The sequence of activities that determine the earliest date by which a project can be completed
Critical Path Analysis The process by which project managers compress a schedule by moving resources, typically people, from noncritical path tasks to critical path tasks
Cross-Selling The sale of related products to customers based on salesperson knowledge, market-based analysis, or both
Data Acquisition – The process of obtaining, cleaning, organizing, relating and cataloging source data.
Data Administration An organization-wide function that develops and enforces data policies and standards
Data Aggregator Any process in which information is gathered and uses it to create BI that it sells to companies and the government
Data Flow A BPMN symbol that documents the movement of data among activities and repositories in a business process
Data Mart Data collection, smaller than a data warehouse that addresses the needs of a particular-department or functions area of the business
Data Mining The application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data
Data Safeguards Measures used to protect databases and other data assets from threats. Includes data rights, responsibilities and physical security
Data Triangulation Concerns the unintended release of protected data through the release of a combination of reports or documents that are not protected independently
Data Warehouse A facility for managing an organization’s BI data – the functions are to Obtain Data, Cleanse Data, Organize and Relate Data, Catalog Data
Database Administration A person or department that develops procedures and practices to ensure efficient and orderly multiuser processing of the database, to control changes to the database structure and to protect the database
Decision Support System Older term for BI systems
Decision Tree A hierarchical arrangement of criteria that predicts a classification or a value
Deliverables Work products that are the result of the completion of tasks in a development project
Denial of Service (DoS) Security problem in which users are not able to access the information system: caused by human errors, natural disasters or malicious activity
Dimension A characteristic of a measure: purchase date, customer type
Diseconomies of Scale A principle that states as development teams become larger, the average contribution per worker decreases
Drill Down With an OLAP report, to further divide the data into more detail
Dynamic Reports BI documents that are updated at the time they are requested
Email Spoofing A synonym for phishing
Encryption The process of transforming clear text into coded, unintelligible text for secure storage or communication
Encryption Algorithms Algorithms used to transform clear text into coded, unintelligible text for secure storage or communication
Expert Systems Rule-based systems that encode human knowledge in the form of If/Then rules
Expert Systems Shells A program in an expert system that processes a set of rules, typically many times, until the values of the variables no longer change, at which point the system reports the results
Firewall A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network, which can be implemented into either hardware or software form, or a combination of both.
Gantt Chart A timeline graphical chart that shows tasks, dates, dependencies and possibly resources
Gramm-Leach Bliley (GLB) Act Protects consumer financial data stored by financial institutions
Granularity The level of detail in data
Green Computing Environmentally conscious computing consisting of three major components: Power management, virtualization, and e-waste management
Hacking The practice of modifying or altering computer software and hardware to accomplish a goal that is outside of the creator's original objective
Hadoop An open source program supported by the Apache Foundation that manages thousands of computers and that implements MapReduce
Hardening A term used to describe server operating systems that have been modified to make it especially difficult for them to be infiltrated by malware
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) Giving individuals the right to access health data created by doctors and other health care professionals
Honeypots: False targets for computer criminals to hack
HTTPS: An indication that a web browser is using protocol to provide a secure connection
Human Safeguards: Steps taken to protect against security threats by establishing appropriate procedures for users to follow during system use
Hyper-Social Knowledge Management The application of social media and related applications for the management and delivery of organizational knowledge resources
Identification The process whereby an information system identifies a user by requiring the user to sign on with a username and password
If/Then Rules Statements the specify that if a particular condition exists, then a particular action should be taken
Implementation In the context of the systems development life cycle, the phase following the design phase consisting of tasks to build, test and convert users to the new system
Internal Firewalls Firewalls that sit inside the organizational network
Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) A computer program that senses when another computer program is attempting to scan on the disk or otherwise access a computer
IP Spoofing A type of spoofing whereby an intruder uses another’s IP address as if it were that other site
Just-In-Time Design Rather than design the complete, overall system at the beginning, only those portions of the design needed to complete the current work are done
Key A column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table ALSO a string of bits used to encrypt data
Key Escrow A control procedure whereby a trusted party is given a copy of a key used to encrypt database data
Key Loggers Malicious spyware that captures keystrokes without the user’s knowledge.
Knowledge Management (KM) The process of creating value from intellectual capital and sharing that knowledge with employees, managers, suppliers and others who need it
Lift The ratio of confidence to the base probability of buying an item
Maintenance For IS – to fix the system for what it was supposed to do in the first place and to adapt the system to a change in requirements
Malware Viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware, and adware
MapReduce Two phase – Map phase: computers work on task in parallel then Reduce phase: the work of separated computers is combined to obtain a single result
Market-Basket Analysis A data mining technique for determining sales patterns
Measure The data of interest: item to be summed or averaged
Neural Networks A popular supervised data mining technique used to predict values and make classifications, such as “good prospect” and “poor prospect”
Objective Management Group (OMG) A software industry standards organization that created a standard set of terms and graphical notations for documenting business processes
OLAP Cube A presentation of an OLAP measure with associated dimensions
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Reporting system that provides the ability to sum, count, average and perform – also dynamic as viewer can change the format
Organizational Feasibility Whether an information system fits within an organization’s customer, culture and legal requirements
Outsourcing The process of hiring another organization to perform a service – done to save costs, to gain expertise and to free up management time
Packet-Filtering Firewall A firewall that examines each packet and determines whether to let the packet pass.
Paired Programming The situation in which two computer programmers share the same computer and develop a computer program together
Parallel Installation A type of (expensive) system conversion in which the new system run parallel with the old one and the results of the two are reconciled for consistency
Payload The program codes of a virus that causes unwanted or hurtful actions, such as deleting programs or data, or even worse, modifying data in ways that are undetected by the user
Perimeter Firewall A firewall that sits outside the organizational network: it is the first device that Internet traffic encounters
Personal Identification Number (PIN) A form of authentication whereby the user supplies a number that only he or she knows
Phased Installation A type of system conversion in which the new system is installed in pieces across the organizations
Phisher Something that spoofs legitimate companies in an attempt to illegally capture secure information
Pig Query language used with Hadoop
Pilot Installation A type of system conversion in which the organization implements the entire system on a limited portion of the business
• Placing BI applications on operational servers can dramatically reduce system performance.
Plunge Installation A type of system conversion in which the organization shuts off the old system and starts the new system
Pretexting Deceiving someone over the Internet by pretending to be another person or organization
PRIDE System Performance Recording, Integration, Display and Evaluation
PRISM Code name for secret global surveillance program to monitor internet activities
Privacy The freedom from being observed by other people
Privacy Act of 1974 Federal law that provides protections to individuals regarding records maintained by the U.S. government
Public Key Encryption Ransomware A special version of asymmetric encryption that is popular on the Internet. Public for encoding and Private for decoding
Publishing results The process of delivering business intelligence to the knowledge workers who need it
Pull Publishing Requires the user to request BI results
Push Publishing Delivers BI to users without any request from the user
Regression Analysis A type of supervised data mining that estimated the values of parameters in a linear equation
Reporting Application A BI application that inputs data from one or more sources and applies reporting operations to that data to produce business intelligence
Requirements Analysis The second phase in the SDLC: user interviews, evaluate existing systems, etc.
Resources People or information system applications that are assigned to roles in business processes
RFM Analysis A technique readily implemented with basic reporting operations to analyze and rank customers according to their purchasing patterns
Rich Directory An employee directory that includes not only the standard name, email, phone and address, but also expertise and other employee data
Roles In a business process, collections of activities
Safeguard Any action, device, procedure, technique or other measure that reduces a system’s vulnerability to a threat
Schedule Feasibility Whether an information system can be developed within the time available
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) A protocol that uses both asymmetric and symmetric encryption
Security The state of being free from danger
Semantic Security Concerns the unintended release of protected data through the release of a combination of reports or documents that are not protected independently
Smart Cards Plastic cards like credit cards that have microchips and is loaded with identifying data
Sniffing A technique for intercepting computer communications
Spoofing When someone pretends to be someone else with the intent of obtaining unauthorized data
Spyware Software that enables a user to obtain covert information about another's computer activities by transmitting data covertly from their hard drive
SQL Injection Attack A code injection technique, used to attack data-driven applications, in which nefarious statements are inserted into an entry field for execution (e.g. to dump the database contents to the attacker).
Stand-up In scrum, a 15-minute meeting in which each team member states what he or she has done in the past day
Static Reports BI documents that are fixed at the time of creation and do not change
Steering Committee A group of senior managers from a company’s major business functions that works with the CIO to set the IS priorities
Subscriptions User requests for particular business intelligence results on a stated schedule or in response to particular events
Supervised Data Mining A form of data mining in which data miners develop a model prior to the analysis and apply statistical techniques to determine the validity or that model and to estimate values of the parameters of the model
Support The probability that two items will be purchased together
Swim-Lane Layout A process diagram layout similar to swim lanes in a swimming pool
Symmetric Encryption Encryption method whereby the same key is used to code and decode a message
System Conversion The process of converting business activity from the old system to the new
Systems Analyst IS professional who understands both business and technology
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) A term used in systems engineering, information systems and software engineering to describe a process for planning, creating, testing, and deploying an information system.
Target The asset that is desired by a security threat
Technical Feasibility Whether existing information technology will be able to meet the requirements of a new information system
Technical Safeguards Procedures designed to protect the hardware and software components of an information system
Test Plan Groups of action and usage sequences for validating the capability and patients at a distance
The Singularity The point at which computer systems become sophisticated enough to create their own software
Third-Party Cookie A cookie created by a site other than the one you visited.
Threat A person or organization that seeks to obtain or alter data or other IS assets illegally
Trade-Off In project management, a balancing of three critical factors: requirements, cost and time
Transport Layer Security (TLS) The new name for a later version of Secure Sockets Layer
Trojan Horse Viruses that masquerade as useful programs or files – MP3 or other innocuous program
Unsupervised Data Mining A form of data mining whereby the analysts do not create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis
Usurpation Occurs when unauthorized programs invade a computer system and replace legitimate programs
Velocity In scrum, the total number of points of work that a team can accomplish in each scrum period
Virus A computer program that replicates itself
Vulnerability An opportunity for threats to gain access to individual or organization assets
Wardrivers People who use computers with wireless connections to search for unprotected wireless networks
Waterfall Method A sequential design process, used in software development processes, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards through the phases of conception, initiation, analysis, design, construction, testing, production/implementation and maintenance
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) A hierarchy of the tasks required to complete a project
Worm A virus that propagates itself using the Internet or some other computer network – is written specifically to infect another computer as quickly as possible
Created by: Lbrettell21