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LIC4 C conventions

WGU Literary conventions LIC4

allegory A narration or description restricted to a single meaning because its events, actions, characters, settings, and objects represent specific abstractions or ideas. elements in an allegory tends to be on what they ultimately mean. Charactersnames as Hope,
allusion reference to a person, place, thing, event, or idea in history or literature. Allusions conjure up biblical authority, scenes from Shakespeare’s plays, historic figures, wars, great love stories, and anything else that might enrich an author’s work.
aside speech directed to the audience that supposedly is not audible to the other characters onstage at the time. When Hamlet first appears onstage, for example, his aside "A little more than kin, and less than kind"
convention any established feature of technique in literature that is commonly understood by both authors and readers. something generally agreed on to be approriate for its customary uses. sonnet, "once upon a time"
dialogue The conversation between characters in a drama or narrative. A dialouge occurs in most works of literature
deus ex machina an artificial, or improbable, character, device, or event introduced suddenly in a work of fiction or drama to resolve a situation or untangle a plot (such as an angel suddenly appearing to solve problems). negative, and it implies a lack of skill on the
flashback action that interrupts to show an event that happened at an earlier time which is necessary to better understanding.
foreshadowing use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in literature.
in media res Latin"in the midst of things" that refers to a narrative device of beginning a story midway int eh events it depicts. (usually at an exciting or significant moment)
satire literary tone used to ridicule or make fun of human vice or weakness, often with the intent of correcting, or changing, the subject of the satiric attack.
soliloquy an utterance or discourse by a person who is talking to himself or is disregardful of or oblivious to any hearers present (often used as a device in drama to disclose a character's innermost thoughts): Hamlet's soliloquy begins with “To be or not to be.”
sonnet traditional and widely used verse form. love poetry. 14 lines:8 then 6
artistic license distortion or complete ignorance of fact, ignoring the conventions of grammar or language, or the changing of an established fact that an artist may undertake in the name of art.
attribution the act of attributing; ascription.
bias a particular tendency or inclination, esp. one that prevents unprejudiced consideration of a question; prejudice.
censorship hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization.
citation the act of citing or quoting a reference to an authority or a precedent. 6. a passage cited; quotation. 7. a quotation showing a particular word or phrase in context. 8. mention or enumeration.
copyright the exclusive right to make copies, license, and otherwise exploit a literary, musical, or artistic work, whether printed, audio, video, etc
defamation the act of defaming; false or unjustified injury of the good reputation of another, as by slander or libel; calumny: She sued the magazine for defamation of character.
document any written item, as a book, article, or letter, esp. of a factual or informative nature.
documaentation a furnishing with documents, as to substantiate a claim or the data in a book or article.
intellectual property property that results from original creative thought, as patents, copyright material, and trademarks.
libel defamation by written or printed words, pictures, or in any form other than by spoken words or gestures.
permissions 1. authorization granted to do something; formal consent: to ask permission to leave the room. 2. the act of permitting.
plagiarism the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work.
propaganda information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
slander 1. defamation; calumny: rumors full of slander. 2. a malicious, false, and defamatory statement or report: a slander against his good name. 3. Law. defamation by oral utterance rather than by writing, pictures, etc.
accentual-syllabic extension of accentual verse which fixes both the number of stresses and syllables within a line or stanza. Accentual-syllabic verse is highly regular and therefore easily scannable. Usually, either one metrical foot, or a specific pattern of metrical fee
ballad song, transmitted orally from generation to generation, that tells a story and that eventually is written down. As such, ballads usually cannot be traced to a particular author or group of authors. Typically, ballads are dramatic, condensed, and impersona
conceit elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction
diction The choice of a particular word as opposed to others
epic An epic in its most specific sense is a genre of classical poetry
enjambment French, "straddling," in English also called "run-on line," pronounced on-zhahm-mah): A line having no pause or end punctuation but having uninterrupted grammatical meaning continuing into the next line.
figurative language A deviation from what speakers of a language understand as the ordinary or standard use of words in order to achieve some special meaning or effect.
foot A basic unit of meter consisting of a set number of strong stresses and light stresses
monometer one foot
dimeter two feet
trimeter three feet
tetrameter four feet
pentameter five feet
hexameter 6 foot
heptameter 7 foot
octameter 8 foot
nonameter 9 foot
decameter 10 foot
blank verse (form) unrhymed iambic pentameter): Unrhymed lines of ten syllables each with the even-numbered syllables bearing the accents. Blank verse has been called the most "natural" verse form for dramatic works, since it supposedly is the verse form most close to natur
free verse (form) Poetry based on the natural rhythms of phrases and normal pauses rather than the artificial constraints of metrical feet.
haiku (form) The traditional Japanese haiku consists of three lines. The first line contains five syllables, the second line contains seven, and the last line five.
limerick (form) A five-line closed-form poem in which the first two lines consist of anapestic trimeter, which in turn are followed by lines of anapestic dimeter, and a final line in trimeter. They rhyme in an AABBA pattern. they are used in comic or bawdy verse
epigram short, humorous poem, often written in couplets, that makes a satiric point
triolet A stanza of eight lines using only two rhymes, with the first line repeating three times.
villanelle genre of poetry consisting of nineteen lines--five tercets and a concluding quatrain. The form requires that whole lines be repeated in a specific order, and that only two rhyming sounds occur in the course of the poem.
sestina complex verse form. 6 end words arre repeated in prescribed order through 6 stanzas.
Imagery includes the "mental pictures" that readers experience with a passage of literature. It signifies all the sensory perceptions referred to in a poem, whether by literal description, allusion, simile, or metaphor
internal rhyme device in which a word in the middle of a line rhymes with a word at the end of the same metrical line.
lyric short poem expressing the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker. often written in the 1st person lyric poetry traditionally has a sonlike immediacy and emotional force
meter reccurent, regular, rhythmic, pattern in verse.
iambic meter a verse meter consisting of a specific recurring number of iambic feet per line
trochaic Poetry in which each foot consists primarily of trochees (poetic feet consisting of a heavy stress followed by a light stress).
anapestic classical quantitative meters it consists of two short syllables followed by a long one (as in a-na-paest); in accentual stress meters it consists of two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable.
Dactylic three-syllable foot consisting of a heavy stress and two light stresses. Examples of words in English that naturally constitute dactyls include strawberry, carefully, changeable, merrily, mannequin, tenderly, prominent, buffalo, glycerin, notable, scorpio
monologue An interior monologue does not necessarily represent spoken words, but rather the internal or emotional thoughts or feelings of an individual,speaking aloud to himself, or narrating an account to an audience with no other character on stage.
narrative poetry A poem that tells a story. A narrative poem may be short or long, and the story it relates may be simple or complex.
ode relatively lengthy lyric poem that often expresses lofty emotions in a dignified style. Odes are characterized by a serious topic, such as truth, art, freedom, justice, or the meaning of life; their tone tends to be formal.
rhyme schemes the pattern of end rhymes. Rhyme schemes are mapped out by noting patterns of rhyme with small letters:
rhymed words EXACT A word that is an exact homophone of a prior word, or a repetition of it, does not rhyme with its predecessor because there is no difference. Die and dye are not exact rhymes, but die and fly are.
rhymed words SLANT This kind of rhyme usually has the same final consonant, but a different final vowel (or the same final vowel but a different final consonant). Weapon, shapely, naked, wan, Head from the mother's bowels drawn
rhymed words END a rhyme that occurs in the last syllables of verses,Whose woods these are I think I know,His house is in the village, though;
scansion The process of measuring the stresses in a line of verse in order to determine the metrical pattern of the line.
syllabic verse the metrical system that is most commonly used in English poetry. It is based on both the number of stresses, or accents, and the number of syllables in each line of verse
Italian (petrarchan) Sonnet divided into an octave, which typically rhymes abbaabba, and a sestet, which may have varying rhyme schemes. Common rhyme patterns in the sestet are cdecde, cdcdcd, and cdccdc. Very often the octave presents a situation, attitude, or problem that the sest
English (shakespearean) Sonnet organized into three quatrains and a couplet, which typically rhyme abab cdcd efef gg. This rhyme scheme is more suited to English poetry because English has fewer rhyming words than Italian.
Spenserian Sonnet follows the English quatrain and couplet pattern but resembles the Italian in using a linked rhyme scheme: abab bcbc cdcd ee
couplet Stanza Two consecutive lines of poetry that usually rhyme and have the same meter. A heroic couplet is a couplet written in rhymed iambic pentameter.
tercet stanza A three-line stanza
quatrain stanza A four-line stanza. Quatrains are the most common stanzaic form in the English language; they can have various meters and rhyme schemes.
sestet stanza A stanza consisting of exactly six lines.
octave stanza eight lines, usually forming one part of a sonnet.
stress The emphasis, or accent, given a syllable in pronunciation.
symbol person, object, image, word, or event that evokes a range of additional meaning beyond and usually more abstract than its literal significance
verse generic term used to describe poetic lines composed in a measured rhythmical pattern, that are often, but not necessarily, rhymed.
word-play technique in which the words that are used become the main subject of the work. obscure words and meanings, clever rhetorical excursions, oddly formed sentences
allegory describes any writing in verse or prose that has a double meaning. This narrative acts as an extended metaphor in which persons, abstract ideas, or events represent not only themselves on the literal level, but they also stand for something else on the sy
allusion a person, place, event, or another passage of literature, often without explicit identification. Allusions can originate in mythology, biblical references, historical events, legends, geography, or earlier literary works
apostrophe act of addressing some abstraction or personification that is not physically present. "Oh, Death, be not proud."
allegory describes any writing in verse or prose that has a double meaning. This narrative acts as an extended metaphor in which persons, abstract ideas, or events represent not only themselves on the literal level, but they also stand for something else on the sy
allusion a person, place, event, or another passage of literature, often without explicit identification. Allusions can originate in mythology, biblical references, historical events, legends, geography, or earlier literary works
apostrophe act of addressing some abstraction or personification that is not physically present. "Oh, Death, be not proud."
connotation mplied meaning of a word. Opposite of denotation.
denotation literal meaning of a word, the dictionary meaning. Opposite of connotation.
diction choice of a particular word as opposed to others. A writer could call a rock formation by many words--a stone, a boulder, an outcropping, a pile of rocks, a cairn, a mound, or even an "anomalous geological feature."
elements of style Sentence Structure, pace, Expansive/Economical Diction,vocabulary, figure of speach, use of dialogue,point of view, character development,tone,Word Color,Word Sound,Paragraph/Chapter Structure,Time Sequencing/Chronology, allusion,Experimentation in Langua
elements of tone writer's attitude toward the material and/or readers. Tone may be playful, formal, intimate, angry, serious, ironic, outraged, baffled, tender, serene, depressed, etc.
Created by: kidscreaming3



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