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Viruelence factors

Microbio

QuestionAnswer
Capsulated organisms work by ____ Evade phagocytes. "Some Nasties Have Kapsules" Streptococcal pneumoniae, Neisseria, Hemophilus, Klebisella
Protein A produced by _____. S. aureus. Binds to Fc region of Ig, disrupting opsonization and phagocytosis.
IgA protease Enzyme that cleaves IgA.
What organisms secrete IgA protease? S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Neisseria
M protein. Secreted by ___. Helps to prevent phagocytosis. Is secreted by streptococcal species.
Exotoxin made from ___, Endotoxin made from ____. Exotoxin= polypeptide, Endotoxin =LPS
Location of genes for exotoxin, endotoxin Exotoxin=plasmid, bacteriophage, Endotoxin= bacterial chromosome
____ has vaccine available only exotoxin
Typical diseases with exotoxin Tetanus, botulinism, diptheria
Typical diseases with endotoxin Meningococcemia, sepsis by gram negative bacteria
Superantigens bind directly to ___ and ___. This activates ___ to release ___ and ___ Superantigens bind directly to MHC II and T-cell receptor simultaneously, activating large numbers of T cells to stimulate release of IFN-gamma and IL-2.
Two bugs with superantigen toxins S. Aureus, S. pyogenes
Superantigen of S. aureus is called ____ and produces ___ with the symptoms of ____,____, ___. TSST-1 (toxic shock syndrome) (fever, rash, shock)
S. aureus also produces enterotoxins that cause ___ and ____. Food poisoning and exfoliatin (scalded skin syndrome)
Superantigen of S. aureus is called ____ and produces ___ with the symptoms of ____,____, ___. TSST-1 (toxic shock syndrome) (fever, rash, shock)
S. aureus also produces enterotoxins that cause ___ and ____. Food poisoning and exfoliatin (scalded skin syndrome)
Superantigen of S. aureus is called ____ and produces ___ with the symptoms of ____,____, ___. TSST-1 (toxic shock syndrome) (fever, rash, shock)
S. aureus also produces enterotoxins that cause ___ and ____. Food poisoning and exfoliatin (scalded skin syndrome)
S. pyogenes produces a ____ exotoxin. This toxin is called ____ and produces ___. Scarlet fever-erythrogenic toxin; causes toxic shock syndrome)
ADP ribosylating A-B toxins work by ____. B functions by ___. A functions by ____. Interfere with host cell function. B= binds to receptor on surface of host cell, enabling endocytosis. A (active) then attaches an ADP-ribosyl to a host cell protein, altering protein function.
3 bugs that use ADP ribosylating A-B toxins are ____,____, ____, ____. Corynebacterium diptheriae, Vibrio cholerae, E. Coli, Bordetella pertussis.
C. diptheriae produces an ___ type of exotoxin. It works by ___. It produces ____. C. diptheriae produces an ADP-ribosylating A-B toxin. It works by inactivating (EF-2). It causes pharyngitis and "pseudomembrane" in throat.
Pseudomonas Exotoxin is similar to ____ C. diptheriae
V. cholerae produces an ___ type of exotoxin. It works by ____. Produces ____. ADP-ribosylating AB toxin. It works by ADP ribosylating a G protein that stimulates adenylyl cyclase; this increases the Cl into the gut and decreases Na absorption. H20 moves into the gut and causes volumninous rice water diarrhea.
E. coli produces an ___ type of exotoxin. It works by ____. Produces ____. Heat labile = stimulates adenylate cyclase. Heat stable = stimulates guanylate cyclase. ADP-ribosylating AB toxin. Both cause watery diarrhea. "Labile like the Air, stable like the Ground".
Bordatella pertussis produces an ____ type of exotoxin. It works by ____. Produces ___. ADP-ribosylating toxin. It works by increasing cAMP by inhibiting Gi. Causes whooping caugh, inhibits chemokine receptor, causing lymphocytosis.
Clostridium perfringens produces an ___ type of exotoxin. Alpha toxin. Causes gas gangrene. Get double zone of hemolysis on blood agar.
C. tetani produces an ___ type of exotoxin. it works by ___ and produces ____. Blocks release of inhibitory neurotransmitters (GABA and glycine); causes lockjaw.
C. Botulinum produces an ___ type of exotoxin. it works by ___ and produces ____. Blocks acetylcholine; causes anticholinergic symptoms, CNS paralysis, especially cranial nerves. (Spores found in food = floppy baby)
Bacillus anthracis produces an ___ type of exotoxin. it works by ___ and produces ____. Edema factor type of adenylate cyclase
Shigella produces an ___ type of exotoxin. it works by ___ and produces ____. Shiga toxin (also produced by ETEC). Cleaves host cell rRNA (inactivates 60s); also enhances cytokine release. Causes HUS.
S. Pyogenes produces produces an ___ type of exotoxin. it works by ___ and produces ____. Streptolysin O is a hemolysin. antigen for ASO antibody which is used in diagnosis of rheumatic fever
What four bacteria induce cAMP V. cholerae, B. anthracis, E. coli (Heat labile), B. Pertussis
V. cholerae increases cAMP by ___. By activating Gs
B. pertussis increases cAMP by ____. Pertussis also promotes ___ by inhibitng ___ By inactivating Gi (allowing cAMP to increase). Pertussis also promotes lymphocytosis by inhibiting chemokine receptors.
Genes for the following 5 bacterial toxins encoded by a lysogenic phage ABCDE. ShigA-like toxin, Botulinum toxin, Cholera toxin, Diptheria toxin, Erythorgenic toxin of S. pyogenes
What are organisms get resistance via transformation? S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Neisseria (Same as the ones that have the IgA)"Engineers get NHS grants and do major transformations"
Lysogenic acquired toxins OBED (O- salmonella, Botulinum, erythrogenic toxin, Diptheria)
Toxin is derived from a plasmid Tetanus
Created by: ddecampo