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CV Phisiology

Cardiovascular System

What materials are transported by the cardiovascular system? 1. Nutrients, water and gases the enter the body from external environment. 2. Materials that move from cell to cell within the body.3. Wastes that the ells eliminate.
Materials entering the body. Oxygen goes from the lungs to all cells.Nutrients and water go from the intestinal tract to all cells.
Materials moved from cell to cell. Wastes go from some cells to liver for processing.Immune cells, antibodies,& clotting proteins are always present in blood & go to any cell in need.Hormones go from end-cells to Targ-cells.Stored nutrients go from Liver & Adipose tissue to all cell.
Materials leaving the body. Metabolic wastes go from all cells to kidneys.Heat goes from all cells to skin.Carbon dioxide goes from all cells to lungs.
Describe the general route of blood flow through the heart and body. R.Atrium>R.ventricle>Pulmonary arteries>lungs=blood oxygenated=Red>L.side of heart>Pul.veins>L.atrium>l.ventricle>aorta>blue>caps>blood flows into the venous side of circulation moving small veins into larger veins.
Pulmonary circulation: The blood vessels that go from the right ventricle to teh lungs and back to the left atrium.
Systemic Circulation The blood vessels that carry blood from the left side of teh heart to the tissues and backto teh right side of the heart.
What is the right side of the heart responsible for? The right side of the heart receives blood from the tissues and sends it to the lungs for oxygenation.
What does the left side of the heart do? The left side of teh heart receives newly oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps ito to tissues throughout the body.
What are intercalated discs in cardiac muscle tissue? Cell junctions of interdigitated membranes. Desmosomes: are strong connections that tie adjacent cells together,allowing force reated in one cel to be transferred to the adjacent cell.Gap junctions: electrically connect cardiac muscle cells to 1 another
How do they aid cardiac muscle contraction? Waves of depolarization thus can spread rapidly form cell to cell, allowing all the heart muscle cells to contract almost simultaneously. In this respect cardiac muscle resembles single-unit smooth muscle.
What two types of cardiac cells? Autorhythmic and contractile.
What are Autorhythmic cells? Unique ability to generate APs wo input from the NS b/c of unstable MP beg @ -60mV & slowly ^ toward threshold. The MP never rests @ a contstant value="pacemaker potential rather than a RMP. When pacemaker potential depol. to threshold the cell fires a AP
What are "If channels? If channels allow a current (I) to flow b/c of unusual properties. When the cell membrane potential is -60mV If channels that are permeable to Potassium and Sodium open.
Describe how an Autorhythmic cell is depolarized. If chnl open @ - MP Na+ inflx exceeds K+ eflx.Net inflx of + chrg slowly depol.the A-cell. MP = + the If chnl close & Ca2+ open. Ca2+ inflx cont to depol. & the MP move to TH, then more Ca2+ chnl open. Ca2+ rush in cell = the steep depol. phase of the AP
Describe how an Autorhythmic cell repolarizes. When the Ca2+ channels close at the peak of the Action Potential, K+ channels slowly have opened. The Reolarization phase of the Autorhythmic Action Potential is due to the resultant efflux of K+
What is a Contractile Cell? When there is a lenthening to the AP caused by Ca2+ entry.
Describe how a Contractile cell is depolarized. Whne a wave of depolarization moves into contractile cells through gap junctions the Membrane potenial becomes more +. Voltage gated Na+ channes open allowing Na+ to enter the cell and rapidly depolarize it. The MP reaches +20mV before Na+ channels close.
Describe how a Contractile cell repolarizes. Voltage gated Ca2+ chnl open & enter cell, @ same K+ chnl close.The combo of Ca2+ infx & decreased K+ eflx causes the AP to fltn into a plateau. The Plateau ends when Ca2+ chnl close & K+ perm ^ again. When K+ chnl open K+ exit fast,& returns cell to RP.
Describe the roles of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous systems in modulating contractile force and heart rate. The HR is influenced by antagonistic control. The Para. actions slow HR & Sym. actions speed HR. Tomic control of HR is dominated by the Para. brance when all Para & Sym. input is blocked the spontaneous Depolarization rate of the SA node is 90-100 bpm
How is the heart rate influenced by the Parasympathetic Nervous system? Teh simples method to increase the heart rate is to decrease parasympathetic actions. As Parasympathetic influence is withdrawn form teh Autorhymic cells they resume their intrinsic rate of depolarization and the heart rate increases to 90-100 bpm
How is the heart rate influenced by the Sympathetic Nervous System? Sympathetic input is required to increase the heart rate above the intrinsic rate. Norepinephrine or Epinephrine on B1 receptors speed up the depolarization rate of the Autorhythmic cells and increase the heart rate.
What part of the brain is Cardiovascular control located? Medulla Oblongata.
How is Cardiovascular control influenced by the sympathetic nervous system? An Efferent pathway through Sympathetic neurons, Effector cells B1 receptors of Autorhythmic cells, and Tissue response by increasing Na+ & Ca2+ influx, increased rate of depolarization, and an increased heart rate.
How is Cardiovascular control influenced by the parasympathetice nervous system? An efferent pathway through parasympathetic neurons, Effector cells Muscarinic receptors of Autorhythmic cells, and Tissue response of ^ K+ efflux and decreased Ca2+ influx, a decrease hyperpolarized cell and rate of depolarization, & decreased heart rate
Created by: lavy1318



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