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SLP 180 Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Typical and Disordered Communication

What is Communication? in general, communication is an exchange of ideas between sender(s) and receiver(s). It involves message transmission and response feedback.
Socioliguistics the study of influences (such as cultural identity, setting, participants, and more) on communication.
Language a socially shared code that is used to represent concepts. This code uses arbitrary symbols that are combined in rule-governed ways.
Characteristics of Language (that it is) A socially shared, rule-governed system An arbitrary code A generative process A dynamic scheme
Grammar the rules of a language; do not have to be able to explain the rules to recognize when they have been broken
Linguistic Intuition recognition of "wrong" or "right" grammar; native speakers or a language possess this intuition.
Language is GENERATIVE Each utterance is freshly created
Languages are also DYNAMIC Change over time
Components of Language Form Content Use
FORM Syntax, Morphology, Phonology
CONTENT Semantics
USE Pragmatics
Phonology the "sound system" of English, consists of about 43 phonemes
Phoneme Unique speech sounds
Phonotactic Rules specify how sounds may be arranged in words; like rules of grammar, phonotactic rules are not universal. ("k"+"n"- Knoxville in English vs. German combination)
Morphology an aspect of language concerned with rules governing change in meaning at the intraword level; second aspect of form, involves the structure of words
morpheme the smallest meaningful unit of language
Words contain both " " and " " Free morphemes and bound morphemes
Free morphemes may stand alone as a word (cat, go, spite, like, magnificent); if you attempt to break them into smaller units, you lose the meaning of the word
Bound morphemes -s, -ing, -ful, -dis, and -ly change the meaning of the original words by adding their own meanings but cannot be used alone and must be attached to free morphemes.
Syntax Pertains to how words are arranged in a sentence and to the ways in which one word may affect another
Semantics Because language is used to communicate, it must be about something, and that is it's content meaning, or semantics; the study of word and language meaning.
Semantic features pieces of meaning that come together to define a particular word
Pragmatics the use, function or purpose of communication; the study of communicative acts and contexts.
Speech the process of producing the acoustic representation of language
Speech features include: articulation, fluency and voice
Articulation refers to the WAY in which speech sounds are made
Fluency smooth, forward flow of communication that is influenced by the rhythm and rate of speech
Rate (of Speech) speed at which we talk
Prosody component of speech that includes rate and rhythm.
Prosodic features/ Suprasegmentals "supra"- above or beyond suprasegmental features go beyond individual speech sounds (or segmental units) and are applied to whole phrases or sentences
Voice Reveals things about the speaker as well as the message/ vocal tone and resonance
Pitch The perceptual counterpart to fundamental frequency associated with the speed of vocal fold vibration; listeners perception of how high or low a sound is; can be physically measured as frequency or cycles per second, called hertz.
Hertz (Hz) The number of complete vibrations or cycles per second
Habitual pitch is the basic tone that an individual uses most of the time
Intonation pitch movement within an utterance
Non-verbal communication encompasses both the suprasegmental aspects of speech and nonvocal (w/o voice) and non-linguistic (non language) aspects of communication
Artifacts Way you look and decorate your personal environment
Kinesics refers to the way we move our bodies, "body language". Includes overall body movement and position as well as gestures and facial expression. Tend to be more subtle or implicit.
Proxemics the study of the physical distance between people as it affects communication. Reflects relationship between people and is influenced by age, culture, etc.
Tactiles Touching behaviors
Chronemics The effect of time on communication
Etiology "the cause or origin of a problem" that may be used to classify a communication problem. Also the study of cause.
Congenital Disorders present at birth
Acquired result from illness, accident or environmental circumstance any time later in life.
Communication dialects differences that reflect a particular regional, social, cultural or ethnic identity.
ELLs English Language Learners
Holistic Pertaining to the whole; multidimentional
Disorders of Form May be due to many factors, including sensory limitations or learning disabilities: Disorder of Phonology Disorder of Morphology
Disorders of phonology errors in sound use, such as not producing the ends of words (hi shi i too sma" for "his shirt is too small")
Disorders of morphology Incorrect use of past tense or plural markers
Syntactical errors include correct word order and run-on sentences
Disorders of Content Children/adults with limited vocabularies, those who misuse words, and those with word-finding difficulty may have disorders of content, or semantics.
Semantic difficulties limited ability to understand and use abstract language as in metaphors, proverbs, sarcasm, and some humor, suggest semantic difficulties
Disorders of Use Pragmatic language problems may stem from limited or unacceptable conversational, social, and narrative skills; deficits in spoken vocabulary and/or distorted phonology, morphology and syntax.
Speech Disorders May involve articulation, fluency or voice. They may affect people of all ages, be congenital or acquired, be due to numerous causes, and reflect any degree of severity
Disorders of Articulation SLP is interested in the client's ability to move the structures needed in speech, such as the jaw, lips and tongue. The causes include neuromotor problems (cerebral palsy), physical anamolies (cleft palate), and faulty learning.
Dysarthria When paralysis, weakness or poor coordination of the muscles of speech result in poor speech articulation
Developmental disfluency speech patterns that are common at certain developmental stages
fillers "er, um, ya know"
hesitations unexpected pauses
repititions "go-go-go"
prolongations "www-well"
Stuttering a disorder of speech fluency characterized by hesitations, repetitions, prolongations, tension and avoidance behaviors
Voice Disorders Habits such as physical tension, yelling, coughing, throat clearing, smoking & drinking can disrupt normal voice production and may result in pathology to the vocal folds such as polyps, nodules or ulcers.
vocal abuse excessive yelling, screaming or even loud singing that results in hoarseness or another voice disorder
Hearing Disorders results from impaired auditory sensitivity in the auditory or hearing system; may affect ability to detect sound, recognize voices, or discriminate between different sounds.
Deafness When a person's ability to perceive sound is limited to such an extent that the auditory channel is not the primary sensory input for communication. Can be congenital or acquired.
Total communication sign, speech, speechreading, etc.
Hard of Hearing depends primarily on audition for communication. Severity of hearing loss is usually categorized in terms of severity, laterality, and type.
Bi-lateral involving both ears
Unilateral affecting primarily one ear
Conductive Loss caused by damage to the outer or inner ear; people with this type of loss usually report that sounds are generally too soft.
Sensorineural Loss involves problems with the inner ear and/or auditory nerve (older people reporting they hear just fine, but wish others wouldn't mumble)
Mixed hearing loss combination of both conductive and sensorineural
Auditory processing disorders (APD) May have normal hearing, but still have difficulty understanding speech.
incidence refers to the number of NEW cases of a disease or disorder in a particular time period
prevalence number of new AND old cases in a particular time period
Percent of total US population that have a communication disorder 17%
Percent of Swallowing Disorder 3% or 6-10 million Americans
Chronic Hearing Loss Percentages 1-2% under 18yrs of age 32% of ages 75+
Males vs Females- Impairments of speech sound production & fluency are more common in kids vs adults and males vs females
Language disorders occur- in 8-12% of preschool population
Over age 65 5-10% experience language disorders due to dementia, stroke.
Assessment of Communication Disorders systematic process of obtaining information from many sources, various means and different settings
diagnosis distinguishes an individual's difficulties from the broad range of possible problems
etiology cause of communication deficit
predisposing causes underlying problem (genetics, etc.)
precipitating causes triggered the disorder (stroke, etc.)
maintaining/ perpetuating causes continue or add to the problem
prognosis an informed prediction of the outcome of a disorder, both with and without intervention
authentic data actual, real life info, in sufficient quantity to make meaningful and accurate decisions
examination of the peripheral speech mechanism sometimes called oral peripheral exam, assessment of the structure & function of the visible speech system
dynamic assessment a nonstandardized assessment approach that can take the form of test-teach-test to determine child's ability to learn
norm-referenced scores that are used to compare a client to a sample of similar indivduals
criterion reference evaluates a client's strengths & weaknesses with regard to particular skills and does not make comparisons to others
speech/language sampling a systematic collection & analysis of a person's speech or writing. Sometimes called a corpus; used as a point of language assessment
Baseline data information about the client's starting point
incidental teaching SLP manipulates the environment so that communication occurs more naturally
post therapy tests self-explanatory, similar to taking baseline data
Created by: Rosa.yanez



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