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Instrumental Conditi

Physiology of Behavior Ch 13 Neurology

Instrumental conditioning entails the strengthening of connections between neural circuits that detect a particular stimulus and neural circuits that produce a particular response.
Circuits responsible for instrumental conditioning begin in _______ and and end in the ____________. sensory association; motor association cortex of the frontal lobe.
motor association cortex of the frontal lobe; sensory association.
One of the pathways between the sensory association cortex and the motor association cortex direct transcortical connections
One of the pathways between the sensory association cortex and the motor association cortex connections via the basal ganglia and thalamus
The transcortical connections are involved in the acquisition of episodic memories
As learned behaviors become automatic and routine, the are transferred o the basal gnaglia
During learning, the basal ganglia are _____ of the situation passive "observers"
The ___________ reveives sesory information from all fregions of the cerebral cortex neostriatum: the caudate nucleus and the putamen
The neostriatum includes the caudate nucleus and the putamen.
The outputs of the caudate nucleus and the putamen are sent to another part of the basal ganglia called the globus pallidus
The globus pallidus sends output to the frontal cortex: to the premotor and supplementary motor cortex
The frontal cortex sends information to the primary motor cortex
The premotor and supplementary motor cortex does what? Makes plans for movements to be made
The primary motor cortex does what? Executes movements.
Lesions of the _____ disrupt instrumental conditioning but don't affect other forms of learning. basal ganglia
Reinforcement is defined by a respone to reinforcer contingency
Contingency rule that relates performance of an instrumental behavior to an outcome.
James Olds and Peter Milner attempted to determine whether electrical stimulation of the reticular formation would facilitate maze learning in rats.
What is part of the reinforcement circuit? Medial forebrain bundle, ventral tegmental area, and the nucleus accumbens.
medial forebrain bundle a bundle of axons that ravel in a rostral-caudal axis from the midbrain to the rostral basal forebrain.
ventral tegmental area prejects rostrally to several forebrain regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens. Its a group of dopaminergic neurons, axons form mesolimbic and mesocortical systems
nucleus accumbens a nucleus of the basal forebrain near the septum, receives dopamine-secreting terminal buttons from neurons of the ventral tegmental area and is thought to be involved in reinforcement and attention.
Presence of natural reinforcers stimulate the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.
Positive reinforcement is a contigent relation in which a reinforcer increases the probablity of the response that produced it.
Aharon et al. found that young heterosexual men would press a lever that presented pictures of beautiful women and when they aw these pictures, the activity of the nucleus accumbens increased.
If the activity of the nucleus accumbens increases, the release of dopamine increases.
Two functions of a reinforcement system detect the presence of a reinforcing stimulus and strengthen the connections between the neurons that detect the discriminative stimulus and the neurons that producethe instrumental response.
Reinforcement occurs when neural circuits detect a ________ and cause the activation of ____________ in the ventral tegmental area. reinforcing stimulus; dopaminergic neurons
Stein et al. Hippocampal CA1 neurons containing dopamine receptors. Applied dopamine: increases behavior remove dopamine: reinforcement reapplied
Created by: kbm0401