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Chap 5 Psych 481

QuestionAnswer
In operant conditioning , what is the signal whether a particular response will lead to a particular outcome? a discriminative stimuli
What states that the opportunity to perform a highly frequent behavior can reinforce a less frequent behavior ? Premack principle
What is the theory of the Premack principle? The opportunity to perform a highly frequent behavior can reinforce a less frequent behavior.
who is David Premack? A student of B. F. Skinner, who develop a theory to use responses as reinforcers.
what is a later extension of the Premack principle that suggest that opportunity to perform any behavior can be reinforcing if access to that behavior is restricted, Response deprivation hypothesis
What is the part of the brain that helps determine subjective values of punishers, such as whether the intense heat of a chili pepper on the tongue is perceived as pleasurable or painful ? insular cortex (insula)
Where is the insular cortex located? a region of the cortex lying in the fold between parietal and temporal lobes
what is the role the insular cortex plays? involves in conscious awareness of bodily and emotional states and may play a role in signaling the aversive value of stimuli..
What is in the sub-region of the prefrontal cortex that may play a role in the motivational value of pain and punishment, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACCC)
what is a strong habit or compulsion that is maintained despite known harmful consequences. pathological addiction
What are addictive behaviors rather than drugs that produces reinforcements or highs, as well as cravings and withdrawal symptoms when the behavior is prevented, Behavioral addictions.
The part of basal ganglia in the brain that contains dopamine-producing neurons that project to the striatum, substantia nigra par compacta (SNc)
What region of the brain that is important for stimulus-response learning? dorsal striatum
The region of the brain that lies at the base of the forebrain and includes the dorsal striatum. basal ganglia.
Why is the substantia nigra par compacta( SNc) important? It is important for stimulus-response learning,
A region of the midbrain that contains dopamine-producing neurons which project to the frontal cortex and other areas of the brain, ventral tegmental area (VTA)
The theory that organisms have innate drives to obtain primary reinforcers and that learning is driven by the biological need to reduce those drivesl drive reduction theory,
What is the process of providing outcomes for a behavior that increases the probability of the behavior occurring again in the future Reinforcement
A consequence of behavior that leads to decreased likelihood of that, behavior occurring again in the future, punisher
A stimulus that has no intrinsic biological value but that has been paired with primary reinforcers or that provide access to primary reinforcers. secondary reinforcer.
A stimuli such as food and sleep that can function as reinforcers due to their innate biological value to the organisms. primary reinforcer,
A reinforcement schedule in which every instance of the response is followed by the consequence. continuous reinforcement schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which only some responses are reinforced, partial reinforcement schedule
what is a fixed-ratio schedule (FR) in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule in which a specific number of responses are required before a reinforcer is delivered,
What does FR5 mean? that reinforcement arrives after every fifth response.
What is a brief pause following a period of fast responding leading to reinforcement with a fixed -ratio schedule? postreinforcement pause,
What is a fixed-interval (FI) schedule? a reinforcement schedule in which the first response after a fixed amount of time is reinforced. .
What does FI-m mean? that reinforcement arrives for the first response made after one-minute interval since the last reinforcement,
What is a reinforcement schedule in which a certain number of responses on average are required before a reinforcers is delivered? variable -ratio schedule.
What is a VR-5? that on average, every fifth response is reinforced.
A reinforcement schedule in which the first response after a fixed amount of time, on average, is reinforced. VI Variable -interval schedule,
Operant Conditioning and Classical conditioning are both forms of associative learning
Operant Conditioning Organisms associate their own behavior with consequences.
Classical Conditioning Organisms form associations between stimuli - CS and US
Eating is what when the person is hungry? a negative reinforcer
What determines the effectiveness of operant conditioning? 1. Timing from behavior to consequences, and 2. Relationship between behavior and consequence ( schedule)
The closer in time the behavior and consequence the better the learning.
What determines the change in behavior? The outcome.
A consequence of behavior that leads to increased likelihood of that behavior in the future, A reinforcer
Response decreases Punishment
They are biological value to the organism and therefore the organisms will tend to repeat that behavior that provided access to these things, primary reinforcers