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Most susceptible for teratogenic effects 3-8 weeks
Before 3 weeks effect:After 8 weeks: Before 3 weeks: all-or-none, after 8 weeks: growth and function are affected
Alcohol fetal alcohol syndrome, mental retardation
ACE inhibitors Renal damage
Cocaine abnormal fetal development and addication, placental abruption
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma
Iodide (lack/excess) congenital goiter, hypothyroidism
Vitamin A (excess) Extremely high risk for spontaneous abortions, birth defects (cleft palate, cardiac abnormalities)
Thalidomide Limb defects (flipper limbs)
Smoking (nicotine, CO) Pre-term labor, placental problems, IUGR, ADHD
X-rays, anticonvulsants multiple anomalies
Warfarin bone deformities, fetal hemorrhage, abortion
Tetracyclines discolored teeth
Alkylating agents absence of digits, multiple anomalies
aminoglycosides CN VIII toxicity
Folate antagonists NTD
Fetal alcohol syndrome pre/post natal developmental retardation, microcephaly, holoprosencephaly, facial abnormalities, limb dislocation, heart/lung fistuals. Mechanism may include inhibition of cell migration.
Created by: ddecampo