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NASM Definitions

TermDefinition
A-Band The region of the sarcomere where myosin filaments are predominately seen with minor overlap of the actin filaments.
Abduction A movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body.
Acceleration When a muscle exerts more force than is placed on it, the muscle will shorten; also known as a concentric contraction or force production.
Acidosis The accumulation of excessive hydrogen that causes increased acidity of the blood and muscle.
Actin One of the two major myofilaments, actin is the "thin" filament that acts along with myosin to produce muscular contraction.
Action Potential Nerve impulse that allows neurons to transmit information.
Active Flexibility The ability of agonists and synergists to move a limb through the full range of motion while their functional antagonist is being stretched.
Active-Isolated Stretch The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion.
Acute Variables Important components that specify how each exercise is to be preformed.
Adaptive Capable of changing for a specific use.
Adduction Movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline of the body.
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) A high-energy compound occurring in all cells from which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body.
Adequate Intake (AI) A recommended average daily intake level, based on observed (or experimentally determined) approximations of nutrient intake that are assumed to be adequate for a group(s) of healthy people; this measure is used when the RDA cannot be determined.
Advanced Stage The second stage of the dynamic pattern perspective theory when learners gain the ability to alter and manipulate the movements more efficiently to adapt to environmental changes.
Aerobic Activities requiring oxygen.
Afferent Neurons (Also known as sensory neurons) They gather incoming sensory information from the environment and deliver it to the central nervous system.
Agility The ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize, and change direction quickly while maintaining proper posture.
Agonist Muscles that are the primary movers in a joint motion; also known as prime movers.
Alarm Reaction The first stage of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), the initial reaction to a stressor.
Altered Reciprocal Inhibition The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist.
Amortization Phase The electromechanical delay a muscle experiences in the transition from eccentric (reducing force and storing energy) to concentric (producing force) muscle action.
Anaerobic Activities that do not require oxygen.
Anaerobic Threshold The point during high-intensity activity when the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism predominates; also called lactate threshold.
Anatomic Locations Refers to terms that describe locations on the body.
Anatomic Position The position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward. The anatomic position is of importance in anatomy because it is the position of reference for an atomic nomenclature. Anatomic terms reference the body in this position.
Annual Plan Generalized training plan that spans one year to show when the client will progress between phases.
Antagonist Muscles that act in direct opposition to agonists (prime movers).
Anterior (or Ventral) On the front of the body.
Aortic Semilunar Valve Controls blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta going to the entire body.
Appendicular Skeleton Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities.
Arteries Vessels that transport blood away from the heart.
Arterioles Small terminal branches of an artery, which end in capillaries.
Arteriosclerosis A general term that refers to hardening (and loss of elasticity) of arteries.
Arthritis Chronic inflammation of the joints.
Arthrokinematics 1. Joint motion. 2. The motions of joints in the body.
Arthrokinetic Dysfunction 1. A biomechanical & neuromuscular dysfunction which forces at joint are altered, resulting in abnormal joint movement & proprioception. 2.Altered forces at joint results in abnormal muscular activity & impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint.
Arthrokinetic Inhibition The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when a joint dysfunction inhibits the muscles that surround the joint.
Articular (Hyaline) Cartilage Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of Bones.
Articulation Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissue at which movement occurs; also known as a joint.
Assessment A process of determining the importance, size, or value of something.
Association Stage Fitt's second stage in which learners become more consistent with their movement with practice.
Atherosclerosis 1.Clogging, narrowing,& hardening of body's large arteries & medium-sized blood vessels. Atherosclerosis can lead to stroke, heart attack, eye problems, & kidney problems. 2.Buildup of fatty plaque in arteries leads to narrowing & reduced blood flow.
Atmospheric Pressure Everyday pressure in the air.
Atrioventricular (AV) Node A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, that receives heartbeat impulses from the sinoatrial node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles.
Atrioventricular Valves Allow for proper blood flow from the Atria to the ventricles.
Atrium The superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles.
Augmented Feedback Information provided by some external source such as a fitness professional, video tape, or heart rate monitor.
Autogenic Inhibition The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.
Autonomous Stage Fitt's third stage of motor learning in which the learner has refined the skill to a level of automation.
Axial Skeleton Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column.
Axon A cylindric projection from the cell body that transmits nerve impulses to other neurons or effector sites.
Backside mechanics Proper alignment of the rear leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle plantar flexion, knee extension, hip extension, neutral pelvis.
Balance 1. The ability to sustain or return the body's center of mass or line of gravity over its base of support. 2. When the body is in equilibrium and stationary, meaning no linear or angular movement.
Ball-and-Socket Joint Most mobile joints that allow motion in all 3 planes. Examples would include the shoulder and hip.
Basal Ganglia A portion of the lower brain that is instrumental in the initiation and control of repetitive voluntary movements such as walking and running.
Beta-Oxidation The breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids(FFA) to convert FFA's into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are available to enter the Krebs cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP.
Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve Two cusps control the blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
Bioenergetic Continuum Three main pathways used by the kinetic chain to produce ATP.
Bioenergetics The study of energy in the human body.
Biomechanics 1. A study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body. 2. The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces.
Bipenniform Muscle Fibers Muscle fibers that are arranged with short, oblique fibers that extend from both sides of a long tendon. An example would be the rectus femoris.
Blood Fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins, carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body, and also rids the body of waste products.
Blood Lipids Also known as cholesterol and triglycerides, blood lipids are carried in the bloodstream by protein molecules known as high-density-lipoproteins (HDL) and low density-lipoproteins (LDL).
Blood Vessels Network of hollow tubes that circulate blood throughout the body.
Bones Provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs.
Bracing Occurs when you have contracted the abdominal, lower back, and buttock muscles at the same time.
Brainstem The link between the sensory and motor nerves coming from the brain to the body and vice versa.
calorie The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1°C.
Calorie A unit of expression of energy equal to 1,000 cal. The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram or litre of water 1°C.
Cancer Any of various types of malignant neoplasms, most of which invade surrounding tissues, metastasize to several sites, and are likely to recur after attempted removal and to cause death of the patient unless adequately treated.
Capillaries The smallest blood vessels. The site of the exchange of chemicals and water between the blood and the tissues.
Carbohydrates 1. Important organic source of energy composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Includes starches, cellulose, and sugars. Broken down in the body to glucose, a simple sugar.
Cardiac Muscle Heart Muscle.
Cardiac Output Heart rate X stroke volume, the overall performance of the heart.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen rich blood to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.
Cardiorespiratory system A system of the body composed of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Cardiorespiratory training Any physical activity that involves and places stress on the cardiorespiratory system
Cardiovascular Control Center (CVC) Direct impulses that will either increase or decrease cardiac output and peripheral resistance based on feedback from all structures involved.
Cardiovascular system A system of the body composed of the heart, blood, and blood vessels.
Cell body The portion of the neuron that contains the nucleus, lysosomes, mitochondria, and a Golgi complex.
Central controller Controls heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and arterial blood pressure by manipulating the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Central nervous system The portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebellum A portion of the lower brain that compares sensory information from the body and the external environment with motor information from the cerebral cortex to ensure smooth coordinated movement.
Cerebral cortex A portion of the central nervous system that consists of the frontal lobe, perietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.
Cervical spine The area of the spine containing the 7 vertebrae that compose the neck.
Chain A system that is linked together or connected.
Chemoreceptors Sensory receptors that respond to chemical interaction (smell and taste).
Chronic obstructive lung disease The condition of altered air flow through the lungs, generally caused by Airway obstruction as a result of mucus production.
Circuit training system This consists of a series of exercises that an individual performs one after another with minimal rest.
Co-contraction Muscles contract together in a force-couple.
Cognitive stage Fitt's first stage of motor learning that describes how the learner spends much of the time thinking about what they are about to perform.
Collagen A protein that is found in connective tissue that provides tensile strength. Collagen, unlike elastin, is not very elastic.
Compound-Sets Involve the performance of two exercises for antagonistic muscles. For example, a set of bench presses followed by cable rows (chest/back).
Concentric muscle action When a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in shortening of the muscle.
Conduction passageway Consists of all the structures that air travels through before entering the respiratory passageway.
Condyles Projections protruding from the bone to which muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach; also known as a process, epicondyle, trochanter, and tubercle.
Condyloid joint A joint where the condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another bone to form the joint. An example would include the knee joint.
Contralateral Positioned on the opposite side of the body.
Controlled instability Training environment that is as unstable as can safely be controlled by an individual.
Core 1. The center of the body and the beginning point for movement. 2. The structures that make up the lumbo-pelvic-hip-complex (LPHC), including the lumbar spine, the pelvic girdle, abdomen, and the hip joint.
Core strength The ability of the lumbo-pelvic-hip-complex musculature to control an individual's constantly changing center of gravity.
Coronal plane An imaginary plane that bisects the body to create front and back halves; also known as The frontal plane.
Corrective flexibility Designed to improve muscle imbalances and altered arthrokinematics.
Creatine phosphate A high-energy phosphate molecule stored in cells and can be used to resynthesize ATP immediately.
Cumulative injury cycle A cycle whereby an injury will induce inflammation, muscle spasm, adhesions, altered neuromuscular control, and muscle imbalances.
Davis's law States that soft tissue models along the line of stress.
Decelerate When the muscle is exerting less force than is being placed on it, the muscle lengthens; also known as an eccentric muscle action or force reduction.
Deconditioned A state of lost physical fitness, which may include muscle imbalances, decrease flexibility, and a lack of core and Joint stability.
Dendrites A portion of the neuron that is responsible for gathering information from other structures.
Depressions Flattened or indented portions of bone, which can be muscle attachment sites.
Delayed-onset muscle soreness Pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity.
Diabetes mellitus Chronic metabolic disorder caused by insulin deficiency, which impairs carbohydrate usage and enhances usage of fats and proteins.
Diaphysis The shaft portion of a long bone.
Dietary supplement A substance that completes or makes an addition to daily dietary intake.
Diffusion The process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body.
Distal Positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference.
Dorsal Refers to a position on the back or toward the back of the body.
Dorsiflexion When applied to the ankle, the ability to bend at the ankle, moving the front of the foot upward.
Dynamic balance The ability to move and change directions under various conditions without falling.
Drawing-in maneuver 1. Activation of the transverse abdominis, multifidus, pelvic floor muscles, and diaphragm to provide core stabilization. 2. A maneuver used to recruit the local core stabilizers by drawing in the navel toward the spine.
Dynamic functional flexibility Multiplanar soft tissue extensibility with optimal neuromuscular efficiency throughout the full range of motion.
Dynamic joint stabilization The ability of the stabilizing muscles of the joint to produce Optimum stabilization during functional, multiplanar movements.
Dynamic pattern perspective (DPP) The theory suggesting that movement patterns are produced as a result of the combined interactions among many systems (nervous, muscular, skeletal, mechanical, environmental, past experiences, and so forth).
Dynamic range of motion The combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control this range of motion efficiently.
Dynamic stabilization When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it. Also known as an isometric contraction.
Dynamic stretching 1. Uses the force production of a muscle & the body's momentum to take a joint through the full available range of motion. 2.The active extension of a muscle, using force production & momentum, to move a joint through the full available range of motion.
Eccentric muscle action An eccentric muscle action occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening.
Effectors Any structure innervated by the nervous system including organs, glands, muscle tissue, connective tissues, blood vessels, bone marrow, and so forth.
Efferent neurons Neurons that transmit nerve impulses from the brain or spinal cord to the effector sites such as muscles or glands; also known as motor neurons.
Elastin A protein that is found in connective tissue that has elastic properties.
Empathy Action of awareness, understanding, and sensitivity of the thoughts, emotions, and experience of another without personally haven't gone through the same.
Endocrine system The system of glands in the human body that is responsible for producing hormones.
Endomysium The deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers.
Endurance strength The ability to produce and maintain Force for prolonged periods.
Energy The capacity to do work.
Energy-utilizing When energy is gathered from an energy-yielding source by some storage unit (ATP) and then transferred to a site that can use this energy.
Enjoyment The amount of pleasure derived from performing a physical activity.
Epicondyle Projections protruding from the bone to which muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach; also known as a condyle, process, tubercle, and trochanter.
Epimysium A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle.
Epiphyseal plates The region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis. It is a layer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the diaphysis occurs.
Epiphysis The end of long bones, which is mainly composed of cancellous bone, and house much of the red marrow involved in red blood cell production. They are also one of the primary sites for bone growth.
Equilibrium A condition of balance between opposed forces, influences, or actions.
Erythrocytes Red blood cells.
Estimated average requirement (EAR) The average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.
Eversion A movement in which the inferior calcaneus moves laterally.
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) The state in which the body's metabolism is elevated after exercise.
Excitation-contraction coupling The process of neural stimulation creating a muscule contraction.
Exercise imagery Is the process created to produce internalized experiences to support or enhance exercise participation.
Exercise metabolism The examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the Unique physical changes and demands placed on the body during exercise.
Exercise order Refers to the order in which exercises are performed during a workout.
Exercise selection The process of choosing appropriate exercises for a client's program.
Exhaustion The third stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), when prolonged stress or stress that is intolerable produces exhaustion or distress to the system.
Expert stage The third stage of the dynamic pattern perspective model in which the learner now focuses on recognizing and coordinating their joint motions in the most efficient manner.
Expiration The process of actively or passively relaxing the inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body.
Explosive strength The ability to develop a sharp rise in Force production once a movement pattern has been initiated.
Extensibility Capability to be elongated or stretched.
Extension A straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases.
External feedback Information provided by some external Source, such as health and fitness professional, video tape, mirror, or heart rate monitor, to supplement the internal environment.
External rotation Rotation of a joint away from the midline of the body.
Fan-shaped muscle Muscular fiber Arrangement that has muscle fibers span out from a narrow attachment at one end to a broad attachment at the other end. An example would be the pectoralis major.
Fascia The outermost layer of connective tissue that surrounds the muscle.
Fascicle A grouping of muscle fibers that house myofibrils.
Fast twitch fibers Muscle fibers that can also be characterized by the term type IIA and IIB. These fibers contain fewer capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin. These fibers fatigue faster than type I fibers.
Fat One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. Fats help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body. In food, there are two types of fats, saturated and unsaturated.
Feedback 1. The utilization of sensory info & sensorimotor integration to Aid the kinetic chain develop permanent neural representations of motor patterns. 2.The use of sensory info and sensorimotor integration to help the human movement system in motor learning.
Flat bones Classification of bone that is involved in protection and provides attachment sites for muscles. Examples include the sternum and scapulae.
Flexibility The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allow the full range of motion of a joint.
Flexibility training Physical training of the body that integrates various stretches in all three planes of motion to produce the maximum extensibility of tissues.
Flexion A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases.
Force An influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object.
Force-Couple Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint.
Force - velocity curve The ability of muscles to produce Force with increasing velocity.
Formed elements Refers to the cellular component of blood that includes erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.
Fossa A depression or indentation portion of bone, which could be a muscle attachment site; also known as a depression.
Frequency The number of training sessions in a given time frame.
Frontal lobe A portion of the cerebral cortex that contains structures necessary for the planning and control of voluntary movement.
Frontside mechanics Proper alignment of the lead leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, and neutral pelvis.
Fructose Known as fruit sugar; a member of the simple sugars carbohydrate Group found in fruits, honey and syrup, and certain vegetables.
Functional efficiency The ability of the nervous and muscular systems to move in the most efficient manner while placing the least amount of stress on the kinetic chain.
Functional flexibility Integrated, multiplanar, soft tissue extensibility with Optimum neuromuscular control through the full range of motion.
Functional strength The ability of the neuromuscular system to perform Dynamic eccentric, isometric, and concentric contractions efficiently in a multiplanar environment.
Fusiform Muscular fiber Arrangement that has a full muscle belly that tapers off at both ends. An example would be the biceps brachii
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
1. A syndrome in which the kinetic chain responds and adapts to imposed demands. 2. A term used to describe how the body responds and adapts to stress.
Generalized motor program (GMP) A motor program for a distinct category of movements or actions, such as overhand throwing, kicking, or running.
General warm-up 1. Consists of movements that do not necessarily have any movement specificity to the actual activity to be performed. 2. Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that do not necessarily relate to the more intense exercise that is to follow.
Gliding joint A non axial joint that moves back and forth or side-to-side. Examples would include the carpals of the hand and facet joints.
Gluconeogenesis The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids.
Glucose A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat, and to a lesser extent protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel.
Glycemic index The rate at which ingested carbohydrate raises blood sugar and its accompanying effect on insulin release.
Glycogen The complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells. When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells.
Golgi tendon organs Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change.
Goniometric assessment Technique measuring angular measurement and Joint range of motion.
Gravity The attraction between Earth and the objects on Earth.
Ground reaction force (GRF) The equal and opposite force that is exerted back onto the body with every step that is taken.
Heart A hollow muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of rhythmic contraction.
Heart rate (HR) The rate at which the heart pumps.
Hemoglobin Oxygen-carrying component of red blood cells and also gives blood its red color.
Hierarchical theories Series that propose all planning and implementation of movement result from one or more higher brain centers.
Hinge joint A uniaxial joint that allows movement in one plane of motion. Examples would include the elbow and Ankle.
Hobbies Activities that a client may partake in regularly, which may not necessarily be athletic in nature.
Homeostasis The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiologic process.
Horizontal abduction Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral of position.
Horizontal adduction Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from a lateral position to an anterior position.
Horizontal loading Performing all sets of an exercise or body part before moving on to the next exercise or body part.
Human movement science The study of functional Anatomy, functional biomechanics, motion learning, and motor control.
Human movement system The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems.
Hypercholesterolemia Chronic high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
Hyperglycemia Abnormally high blood sugar.
Hyperlipidemia Elevated levels of blood fats (example triglycerides, cholesterol).
Hyperextension Extension of a joint beyond the normal limit or range of motion.
Hypertrophy Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension.
H-zone The area of the sarcomere where only myosin filaments are present.
I-band The area of the sarcomere where only actin filaments are present.
Inferior Position below a point of reference.
Inspiration The process of actively Contracting the inspiratory muscles to move air into the body.
Insulin A protein hormone released by the pancreas that helps glucose move out of the blood and into the cells in the body, where the glucose can be used as energy and nourishment.
Integrated cardiorespiratory training Cardiorespiratory training programs that systematically progressed clients through various stages to achieve optimal levels of physiologic, physical, and performance adaptations by placing stress on the cardiorespiratory system.
Integrated Fitness profile A systematic problem-solving method that provides a fitness professional with a basis for making educated decisions about exercises and acute variable selection.
Integrated flexibility training A multifaceted approach integrating various flexibility techniques to achieve Optimum soft tissue extensibility in all planes of motion.
Integrated performance paradigm To move with efficiency, forces must be dampened (eccentrically), stabilized (isometrically), and then accelerated (concentrically).
Integrated training Concept that applies all forms of training such as integrated flexibility training, integrated Cardiorespiratory training, neuromuscular stabilization (balance), core stabilization,& reactive neuromuscular training (power),& integrated strength training.
Integrative (function of nervous system) The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision-making, which produces the appropriate response.
Intensity The level of demand that a given activity places on the body.
Intermittent claudication The manifestation of the symptoms caused by Peripheral arterial disease.
Internal feedback The process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment.
Internal rotation Rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body.
Interneurons Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another.
Intermuscular coordination The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow all and muscles to work together with proper activation and timing between them.
Intramuscular coordination The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow optimal levels of motor unit Recruitment and synchronization within a muscle.
Intrapulmonary pressure Pressure within the thoracic cavity.
Inversion A movement in which the inferior calcaneus moves medially.
Ipsilateral Positioned on the same side of the body.
Irregular bones A classification of bone that has its own unique shape and function, which does not fit the characteristics of the other categories. Examples include the vertebrae and pelvic bones.
Isokinetic muscle action When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion.
Isometric muscle action When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in the muscle length.
Joints Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissue at which movement occurs; also known as an articulation.
Joint motion Movement in a plane occuring about an axis running perpendicular to that plane.
Joint receptors Receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint.
Joint stiffness Unwanted Resistance to movement.
Kilocalorie A unit of expression of energy equal to 1000 calories. The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram or 1 liter of water 1°C
Kinetic Force.
Kinetic chain The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems.
Knowledge of performance (KP) A method of feedback that provides information about the quality of the movement pattern performed.
Knowledge of results (KR) A method of feedback after the completion of a movement to inform the client about the outcome of their performance.
Kyphosis Exaggerated outward curvature of the thoracic region of the spinal column resulting in a rounded upper back.
Lactic acid An acid produced by glucose-burning cells when these cells have an insufficient supply of oxygen.
Lateral Positioned toward the outside of the body.
Lateral flexion The bending of the spine (cervical, thoracic, or lumbar) from side to side.
Law of acceleration Acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the size of the force causing it, in the same direction as the force, and inversely proportional to the size of the object.
Law of action-reaction Every Force produced by one object onto another produces an opposite force of equal magnitude.
Law of gravitation Two bodies have an attraction to each other that is directly proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their distance from each other.
Law of thermodynamics Weight reduction can only take place when there is more energy burned than consumed.
Length-tension relationship The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length.
Leukocytes White blood cells.
Ligament Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement.
Limit strength The maximum force a muscle can produce in a single contraction.
Lipids A group of compounds that includes triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, and sterols.
Long bones A characteristic of bone that has a long cylindrical body with irregular or widened bony ends. Examples include the clavicle and humerus.
Longitudinal muscle fiber A muscle fiber arrangement in which its fibers run parallel to the line of pull. An example would include the Sartorius.
Lower-brain The portion of the brain that includes the brain stem, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum.
Lower-extremity postural distortion An individual who has increased lumbar lordosis and an anterior pelvic tilt.
Lumbar spine The portion of the spine, commonly referred to as the small of the back. The lumbar portion of the spine is located between the thorax (chest) and the pelvis.
Lumbo pelvic hip complex Involves the anatomic structures of the lumbar and thoracic spine, the pelvic girdle, and the hip joint.
Lumbo pelvic hip postural distortion Altered joint mechanics in an individual that leads to increased lumbar extension and decreased hip extension.
Maximal oxygen consumption vo2max The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.
Maximal strength The maximum Force an individual's muscle can produce in a single voluntary effort, regardless of the rate of force production.
Mechanical specificity 1. The specific muscular exercises using different weights and movements that are performed to increase strength or endurance in certain body parts. 2. Refers to the weight and movements placed on the body.
Mechanoreceptors Sensory receptors responsible for sensing Distortion in body tissues.
Medial Positioned near the middle of the body.
Mediastinum The space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest except the lungs.
Medullar cavity The central cavity of Bone shafts where marrow is stored.
Metabolic specificity 1. The specific muscular exercises using different levels of energy that are performed to increase endurance, strength, or power. 2. Refers to the energy demand placed on the body.
Metabolism All the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. Metabolism is the process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used, and disposed of by the body.
Mitochondria The mitochondria are the principal energy source of the cell. Mitochondria convert nutrients into energy as well as doing many other specialized tasks.
M-line The portion of the sarcomere where the myosin filaments connect with very thin filaments called titin and create an anchor for the structures of the sarcomere.
Mode Type of exercise performed.
Momentum The product of the size of the object (mass) and its velocity (speed with which it's moving).
Monthly plan Generalized training plan that spans one month and shows which phases will be required each day of each week.
Motor Behavior 1. The manner in which the nervous, skeletal,& muscular systems interact to produce an observable mechanical response to the incoming sensory information from the internal& external environment. 2.Motor response to internal& external environmental stimuli
Motor control The involved structures&mechanisms the nervous system uses 2 gather sensory info&integrate it w/previous experience 2 produce motor response. Central nervous system integrates internal&external sensory info w/previous experience 2 produce motor response.
Motor development The change in motor skill Behavior over time throughout the life span.
Motor (function of nervous system) The neuromuscular response to the sensory information.
Motor learning The integration of motor control processes with practice and experience that lead to relatively permanent changes in the capacity to produce skilled movements.
Motor (efferent) neurons Transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the effector sites.
Motor unit A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates.
Multipenniform Muscles that have multiple tendons with obliquely running muscle fibers.
Multiple-set system The system consists of Performing multiple sets of the same exercise.
Multi-sensory condition Training environment that provides heightened stimulation to proprioceptors and mechanoreceptors.
Muscle action Spectrum The range of muscle actions that include concentric, eccentric, an isometric actions.
Muscle fiber arrangement Refers to the manner in which the fibers are situated in relation to the tendon.
Muscle fiber recruitment Refers to the recruitment pattern of muscle fiber or motor units in response to creating forest for a specific movement.
Muscle hypertrophy 1.Characterized by the increase in the cross-sectional area of individual muscle fibers & believed to result from an increase in the myofibril proteins. 2. Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension.
Muscle imbalance Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint.
Muscle spindles Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change.
Muscle synergies Groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement.
Muscular endurance 1. A muscle's ability to contract for an extended period. 2. The ability to produce and maintain Force production over prolonged periods of time.
Muscular system Series of muscles that move the skeleton.
Myofibrils The contractile components of muscle (actin and myosin).
Myosin One of the two major myofilaments, known as the thick filament, that works with actin to produce muscular contraction.
Nervous system A conglomeration of billions of cells specifically designed to provide communication Network within the human body.
Neural activation The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation.
Neural adaptation An adaptation to strength training in which muscles are under the direct command of the nervous system.
Neuromuscular efficiency 1. The ability of the Nira muscular system to enable all muscles to efficiently work together in all planes of motion.
Neuromuscular efficiency 2. The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain and all three planes of motion.
Neuromuscular Junction The point at which the neuron meets the muscle to allow the action potential to continue its impulse.
Neuromuscular specificity 1. The specific muscular exercises using different speeds and styles that are performed to increase neuromuscular efficiency. 2. Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection.
Neuron The functional unit of the nervous system.
Neurotransmitters Chemical Messengers that cross the neuromuscular Junction (synapse) to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle.
Neutralizer Muscles that counteract The Unwanted action of other muscles.
Nociceptors Sensory receptors that respond to pain.
Synovial joints Joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage.
Novice stage The first stage of the dynamic pattern perspective model in which the learner simplifies movements by minimizing the specific timing of joint motions, which tends to result in movement that is rigid and jerky.
Nutrition The process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and repair of tissues.
Obesity 1. The condition of being considerably overweight, and refers to a person with a BMI of 30 or greater, or who is at least 30lbs over the recommended weight for their height. 2. The condition of subcutaneous fat exceeding the amount of lean body mass.
Occipital lobe A portion of the cerebral cortex that deals with vision.
Optimal strength The ideal level of strength that an individual needs to perform functional activities.
Optimum performance training (OPT) A systematic, integrated, and functional training program that simultaneously improves an individual's biomotor abilities and builds high levels of functional strength, neuromuscular efficiency, and dynamic flexibility.
Origin The more fixed, Central, or larger attachment of a muscle --compare with insertion.
Osteoarthritis Arthritis in which collagen become soft, frayed, or thinned out, as a result of trauma or other conditions.
Osteoblasts A type of cell is responsible for bone formation.
Osteoclast A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue.
Osteopenia A decrease in the calcification or density of bone as well as reduced bone mass.
Osteoporosis Condition in which there is a decrease in bone mass and density as well as an increase in the space between bones, resulting in porosity and fragility.
Overtraining Excessive frequency, volume, or intensity of training, resulting in fatigue (which is also caused by a lack of proper rest and Recovery).
Overweight Refers to a person with a body mass index of 25 to 29, or, who is between 25 to 30 pounds over the recommended weight for their height.
Oxygen uptake The usage of oxygen by the body.
Oxygen uptake Reserve vo2r Difference between resting and maximal or Peak oxygen consumption.
Parietal lobe A portion of the cerebral cortex that is involved with sensory information.
Pattern overload 1. Repetitive physical activity that moves through the same patterns of motion, placing the same stresses on the body over time. 2. Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body.
Perception
The integrating of sensory information with past experiences or memories.
Perimysium The connective tissue that surrounds fascicles.
Periodization Division of a training program into smaller, progressive stages.
Periosteum A dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints, which are covered by a synovial membrane.
Peripheral arterial disease A condition characterized by narrowing of the major arteries that are responsible for supplying blood to the lower extremities.
Peripheral heart Action System (PHA) A variation of circuit training in which the client performs 46 exercises in a girl, rest for 30 to 45 seconds, then move to the next sequence of different exercises and continues the pattern alternating between upper and lower extremities.
Peripheral nervous system Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body.
Peripheral vascular disease A group of diseases in which blood vessels become restricted or blocked, typically as a result of atherosclerosis.
Phases of training Smaller divisions of training progressions that fall within the three building blocks of training.
Photoreceptors Sensory receptors that respond to light (vision).
Physical activity Readiness questionnaire (PAR-Q) A questionnaire that has been designed to help qualify a person for low-to-moderate-to-high activity levels.
Pivot joint Allows movement in predominantly the transverse plane; examples would include the alantoaxial joint at the base of the skull and between the radioulnar joint.
Plane of motion Refers to the plane (sagittal, frontal, or transverse) in which the exercise is performed.
Plantarflexion Ankle motion such that the toes are pointed toward the ground.
Plasma Aqueous liquidlike component of blood.
Plyometric (reactive) training Exercises that generate quick, powerful movements involving an explosive concentric muscle contraction preceded by an eccentric muscle action.
Posterior (dorsal) On the back of the body.
Posterior pelvic tilt A movement in which the pelvis rotates backward.
Postural Distortion patterns Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances.
Postural equilibrium The ability to efficiently maintain balance throughout the body segments.
Posture Position and bearing of the Body for alignment and function of the kinetic chain.
Power Ability of the neuromuscular system to produce the greatest force in the shortest time.
Pre-programmed Activation of muscles in healthy people that occurs automatically and independently of other muscles before movement.
Prime mover The muscle that acts as the initial and main source of Motive Power.
Principle of individualism Refers to the uniqueness of a program to the client for whom it is designed.
Principle of overload Implies that there must be a training stimulus provided that exceeds the current capabilities of the kinetic chain to elicit the optimal physical, physiologic, and performance adaptations.
Principle of progression Refers to the intentional manner in which a program is designed to progress according to the physiologic capabilities of the kinetic chain and the goals of the client.
Principle of Specificity or Specific Adaptations to Impose Demands (SAID Principle) Principle that states the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it.
Processes Projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach.
Program design A purposeful system or plan put together to help an individual achieve a specific goal.
Pronation A triplanar movement that is associated with force reduction.
Proprioception The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all the mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement.
Proprioceptively enriched environment An unstable (yet controllable) physical situation in which exercises are performed that cause the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mechanisms.
Protein Amino acids linked by peptide bonds, which consists of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur, and that have several essential biologic compounds.
Proximal Positioned nearest the center of the body or point of reference.
Pulmonary arteries Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle to the lungs through these arteries.
Pulmonary capillaries Surround the alveolar sacs. As oxygen fills the sacs it diffuses across the capillary membranes and into the bloodstream.
Pulmonary semilunar valve Controls blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries going to the lungs.
Pyramid system Involves a triangular step approach that either progresses up in weight with each set or decrease weight with each set.
Pyruvate A by-product of anaerobic glycolysis.
Quadrilateral Muscle Fiber An arrangement of muscle fibers that is usually flay and four-sided. An example would include the rhomboid.
Quickness The ability to react and change body position with maximal rate of force production, in all planes of motion and from all body positions, during functional activities.
Range of motion Refers to the range that the body or bodily segments move during an exercise.
Rapport Aspect of a relationship characterized by similarity, agreement, or congruity.
Rate Coding Muscular force can be Amplified by increasing the rate of impulses from the motor neuron after all prospective motor units have been activated.
Rate of force production Ability of muscles to exert maximum Force output in a minimal amount of time.
Reactive strength The ability of the neuromuscular system to switch from an eccentric contraction to a concentric contraction quickly and efficiently.
Reactive training Exercises that quick, powerful movements involving an eccentric contraction immediately followed by an explosive concentric contraction.
Reciprocal inhibition The simultaneous contraction of one muscle and the relaxation of its antagonist to allow movement to take place.
Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) The average daily nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98%) healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.
Recreation A client's physical activities outside of their work environment.
Relative flexibility The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns.
Relative strength The maximum force that an individual can generate per unit of body weight, regardless of the time of force development.
Remodeling The process of resorption and formation of bone.
Repetition One complete movement of a single exercise.
Repetition tempo The speed with which each repetition is performed.
Resistance development The second stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), when the body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor.
Respiratory passageway Collects the channeled air coming from the conducting passageway.
Respiratory pump Is composed of skeletal structure (Bones) and soft tissues (muscles) that work together to allow proper respiratory mechanics to occur and help pump blood back to the Heart during inspiration.
Respiratory system A system of organs (the lungs and respiratory passageways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the bloodstream.
Rest interval Time taken to recuperate between sets.
Restrictive lung disease The condition of a fibrous lung tissue, which results in a decreased ability to expand the lungs.
Rheumatoid arthritis Arthritis primarily affecting connective tissues, in which there is a thickening of articular soft tissue, and extension of synovial tissue over articular cartilages that have become eroded.
Roll The Joint motion that depicts the rolling of one joint surface on another. Examples would include that of the femoral condyles over the tibial condyles during a squat.
Root cause analysis A method of asking questions on a step-by-step basis to discover the initial cause of fault.
Rotary motion Movement of the bones around the joints.
Saddle joint One bone is shaped as a saddle, the other bone is shaped as the rider; the only example is in the carpometacarpal joint in the thumb.
Sagittal plane The imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves.
Sarcolemma A plasma membrane that surrounds muscle fibers.
Sarcomere The functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin.
Sarcoplasm Cell components that contain glycogen, fats, mineral, and oxygen that are contained within the sarcolemma.
Scapular depression Downward (inferior) motion of the scapula.
Scapular elevation Upward (Superior) motion of the scapula.
Scapular protraction Abduction of scapula; shoulder blades move away from the midline.
Scapular retraction Adduction of scapula; shoulder blades move toward the midline.
Self-myofascial release (SMR) Another form of flexibility that focuses on the fascial system in the body.
Self-organization This Theory, which is based on the dynamic pattern perspective, provides the body with the ability to overcome changes that are placed on it.
Semilunar valves Allow for proper blood flow from the ventricles to the aorta and pulmonary arteries.
Sensation The process whereby sensory information is received by the receptor and transferred either to the spinal cord for reflexive motor Behavior or to higher cortical areas for processing.
Sensorimotor integration the ability of the nervous system to gather & interpret sensory information to anticipate, select, and execute the proper motor response. The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in Gathering and interpreting information and executing movement.
Sensors Provide feedback from the effectors to the central controller and Cardiovascular control system. They include baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, and muscle afferents.
Sensory feedback The process whereby sensory information is used to reactively monitor movement and the environment.
Sensory (function of nervous system) The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment.
Set A group of consecutive repetitions.
Sensory (afferent) neurons Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (such as muscles and organs) via receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
Short bones A classification of bone that appears cubicle in shape. Examples include the carpals and tarsals.
Single-set system The individual performs one set of each exercise, usually 8 to 12 repetitions at a slow, controlled tempo.
Sinoatrial (SA) node A specialized area of cardiac tissue, located in the right atrium of the heart, which initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate; often termed the pacemaker for the heart.
Skeletal system The body's framework, composed of bones and joints.
Skinfold caliper An instrument with two adjustable legs to measure thickness of a skin fold.
Slide The Joint motion that depicts the sliding of a joint surface across another. Examples would include the tibial condyles moving across the femoral condyles during a knee extension.
Sliding filament theory The proposed process by which the contraction of the filaments within the sarcomere take place.
Slow-twitch fibers Another term for type 1 muscle fibers, fibers that are characterized by a greater amount of capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin. These fibers are usually found to have a higher endurance capacity than fast twitch fibers.
Specific warm-up Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that mimic those that will be included in the more intense exercise that is to follow.
Speed The ability to move the body in one intended direction as fast as possible.
Speed strength The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce the greatest possible force in the shortest possible time.
Spin Joint motion that depicts the rotation of one joint surface on another. Examples would include the head of the radius rotating on the end of the humerus during pronation and supination of the forearm.
Split-routine system A system that incorporates training an individual's body parts with a high volume on separate days.
Stability The ability of the body to maintain postural equilibrium and support joints during movement.
Stabilization endurance The ability of the stabilization mechanisms of the kinetic chain to sustain proper levels of stabilization to allow for prolonged neuromuscular efficiency.
Stabilization strength Ability of the stabilizing muscles to provide Dynamic joint stabilization and postural equilibrium during functional activities.
Stabilizer Muscles that support or stabilize the body while the prime movers and the synergists perform the movement patterns.
Starting strength The ability to produce high levels of Force at the beginning of the movement.
Static stretching The process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding that stretch for a minimum of 30 seconds.
Strength The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome an external load.
Strength endurance The ability of the body to repeatedly produce high levels of force for prolonged periods.
Stride length The distance covered with each stride.
Stride rate The number strides taken in a given amount of time (or distance).
Stroke volume (SV) The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction.
Structural efficiency The structural alignment of the muscular and skeletal systems that allow the body to be balanced in relation to its center of gravity.
Subjective Information that is provided by client.
Substrates The material or substance on which an enzyme acts.
Sucrose Often referred to as table sugar, it is a molecule made up of glucose and fructose.
Sulcus A Groove in a bone that allows a soft structure to pass through.
Superior Positioned above a point of reference.
Superset Set of two exercises that are performed back-to-back, without any rest time between them.
Supination A triplanar motion that is associated with Force production.
Supine Lying on one's back.
Synarthrosis joint A joint without any joint cavity and fibrous connective tissue. Examples would include the structures of the skull and the symphysis pubis.
Synergist Muscles that assist Prime movers during functional movement patterns.
Synergistic dominance 1. When synergists take over function for a weak or inhibited prime mover. 2. The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover.
Synovial joints Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body.
Temporal lobe A portion of the cerebral cortex that deals with hearing.
Tendons Connective tissues that attach muscle to Bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce Force.
Tendonitis An inflammation in a tendon or the tendon covering.
Thoracic spine The 12 vertebrae in mid torso that are attached to the rib cage.
Time The length of time an individual is engaged in a given activity.
Tolerable upper intake level (UL) The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage & gender group. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse health effects increases.
Torque The ability of any Force to cause rotation around an axis. A force that produces rotation. Common unit of torque is the Newton-meter or Nm.
Training duration The timeframe of a workout or the length of time spent in one phase of training.
Training frequency The number of training sessions performed during a specified period (usually one week).
Training intensity An individual's level of effort, compared with their maximal effort, which is usually expressed as a percentage.
Training plan The specific outline, created by a fitness professional to meet a client's goals, that details the form of training, length of time, future changes, and specific exercises to be performed.
Training volume Amount of physical training performed within a specified period.
Transfer-of-training effect The more similar the exercises to the actual activity, the greater the carry over into real-life settings.
Transverse plane An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves.
Tricuspid valve Controls the blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle.
Triglycerides The chemical or substrate form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body.
Tri-sets system A system very similar to Supersets, the difference being 3 exercises back-to-back-to-back with little to no rest in between.
Trochanter Projections protruding from the bone to which muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach; also known as a condyle, process, tubercle, and epicondyle.
Tubercle Projections protruding from the bone to which muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach; also known as a condyle, process, epicondyle, and trochanter.
Type The type or mode of physical activity that an individual is engaged in.
Unipenniform muscle fiber Muscle fibers that are arranged with short, oblique fibers that extend from one side of a long tendon. An example would include the tibialis posterior.
Upper-extremity postural distortion An individual who exhibits a forward head, rounded shoulder posture.
Valsalva maneuver A maneuver in which a person tries to Exhale forcibly, with a closed glottis (windpipe) so that no air exits through the mouth or nose as, for example, in lifting a heavy weight. The valsalva maneuver impedes the return of venous blood to the heart.
Veins Vessels that transport blood from the capillaries toward the heart.
Ventilation The actual process of moving air in and out of the body.
Ventilatory threshold The point during graded exercise in which ventilation increases disproportionately to oxygen uptake, signifying a switch from predominantly aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production.
Ventral Refers to a position on the front or toward the front of the body.
Ventricles The inferior chamber of the heart that receives blood from its corresponding Atrium and, in turn, forces blood into the arteries.
Venules The very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins.
Vertebral column A series of irregularly shaped Bones called vertebrae that houses the spinal cord.
Vertical loading Alternating body parts trained from set to set, starting from the upper extremity and moving to the lower extremity.
VO2max The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximum physical exertion.
Weekly plan Training plan of specific workouts that spans one week and shows which exercises are required each day of the week.
Created by: Seegrazrun