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Exam 2 Patho

Exam 2 Pathophysiology LPN

What are the factors affecting wound healing Nutrition, Blood Supply, Infection, Age
Scar Cicatrix
1st degree burn Superficial- epidermis only
2nd degree burn Superficial partial thickness- epidermis and portion of dermis Deep partial thickness- epidermis and dermis (sweat gland damage)
3rd degree burn Full thickness- full skin and subcutaneous tissue
Face (BSA) 4.5% anterior 4.5% posterior **burns on face look for breathing- may need oxygen
Trunk (BSA) 18% anterior 18% posterior
Legs (BSA) 9% each anterior 9% each posterior
Arms (BSA) 4.5% each anterior 4.5% each posterior
Groin (BSA) 1%
Complication- burn injuries Infection, respiratory (smoke inhalation), circulatory (loss of fluids and electrolytes)
Skin reddened/swollen from burn exposure Erythematous
Herpes simplex virus (herpes) Watery vesicles *cold sores and blisters Skin And Mucous membranes
Type 1 herpes Lesions around nose and mouth
Type 2 herpes Genital infection
Herpes zoster virus (shingles) caused by varicella virus Infection follows nerve pathways- vesicular lesions along course of nerve
S/S of shingles Pain, increased sensitivity, itching *usually last longer than a year
Herpes zoster treatment Antiviral drugs
Serous exudate (considered normal) Clear thin watery plasma *skin blisters and wound drainage
Purulent exudate Yellow, green or opaque *Wound infection, sputum, cellulitis
Hemorrhagic exudate Bloody drainage *Hemorrhage from wound site
Serosanguineous exudate Clear with a little blood in it *Jackson-Pratt and Penrose drains
Rickets (vitamin D deficiency) *Metabolic disorder* -poor diet and inadequate exposure to sunlight Affects bones and growth plates causing skeleton to remain soft and become distorted
Closed fracture Simple bone fracture with no open wound
Open fracture Protrudes through skin
Greenstick fracture One side of bone is broken and the other is bent *common in children
Impacted fracture Broken ends are jammed into each other
Comminuted fracture Multiple fracture lines, splintered or crushed bone
Spiral fracture Bone is twisted apart
Transverse fracture Fracture goes straight across bone
Oblique fracture Break occurs at an angle
Osteoporosis (porous, fragile bones) *prone to fracture weight bearing bones Risks- insufficient calcium,age, smoking, multiparity, birth control, menopause, prolonged steroid or heparin therapy
Osteoporosis changes Weakened bone, loss of height, spinal deformities, fracture, pathologic fracture(occurs for no reason at anytime
Osteoporosis complications Hypovolemic shock, hemorrhage, fat embolism (cardinal symptom-chest pain and local pain. Doppler study will detect clots)
Osteosarcoma (malignant tumor or neoplasm that develops in bone tissue) Occurs in a young persons body in bone's growing region (especially around knee)
Osteomyelitis Inflammation of bone caused by pyogenic bacteria
Kyphosis Hunchback
Lordosis Swayback
Scoliosis Lateral curvature
Myalgia Muscle pain
Fibrositis Inflammation of connective tissue associated with muscles and joints
Myasthenia gravis Chronic muscular fatigue brought on by slightest exertion
First aid care of fractures Control hemorrhage
Essential hypertension (no known cause) Hypertension-excess enzyme renin produced in kidney- renin raises blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction and water retention
Hypertension complications Weaken vessels and produce aneurysms in vessel walls, stress the heart,stress the kidneys, predispose to atherosclerosis
Stage 1 hypertension Systolic- 140-159 Diastolic- 90-99 *treated with excercise, low salt, low fat, weight loss, smoking cessation
Stage 2 hypertension Systolic- over or = to 160 Diastolic- over or = to 100 *Treated with diuretic drugs, adrenergic blockers
Arteriosclerosis Hardening of the arteries by calcium salts and scar tissue
Atherosclerosis Build up of plaque Platelets can aggregate at site and cause a thrombus, partial or complete blockage
Atherosclerosis complications Heart disease, stroke, thrombis
Atherosclerosis risks Diet high in fats (saturated fats) and smoking
Arterial degeneration signs and symptoms Leg cramps, pain, headaches, dizziness, hypertension, palpitations, dyspnea, albumin in urine, ulceration and tissue necrosis
Arterial damage caused by diabetes Gangrene in extremities for elderly patients
Aneurysm Bulging sac in blood vessel wall causes weakness, which left untreated eventually yields to pressure and bursts
Varicose veins Swollen, distorted, and ineffective superficial veins- blood pools in vessel
Varicose veins risks Standing long periods of time, pregnancy *elastic stocking help to compress veins and decrease compliance
Phlebitis Inflammation of vein- may contribute to clot formation, thrombophlebitis
Embolism Complication of thrombosis- clot that has become loose and floats in blood
Positive Homans's sign Pain with dorsiflexion of foot, associated with deep vein thrombosis
Anaphalactic shock Severe allergic reaction
Hypovolemic shock Decrease in volume of circulating blood, fluid, or water
Cardiogenic shock Leading cause of shock death- ventricles fail to pump blood effectively. Complication- Myocardial infarction
Septic shock Overwhelming bacterial infection
Signs of shock Acidosis, increased heart rate, decrease in blood pressure
Symptoms of shock Clam my skin, anxiety, low blood pressure, rapid pulse, rapid shallow breathing
Shock first aid Place victim in horizontal position and cover to keep warm, turn head to prevent aspiration of vomited material, rapid response, give O2 and fluids
Shock All measures are aimed at supporting circulation and improving cardiac output. O2 may need to be administered
Splenomegaly- Enlargement Of spleen- caused by liver disease, blood cancer, metabolic disorders and hypertension of hepatic vein Accompanies infectious mononucleosis, scarlet fever,typhus fever, typhoid fever and syphillis
Infectious mononucleosis- caused by Epstein Barr virus (type of herpes virus) spread by saliva, affects B lymphocytes S/s- skin rash, swollen lymph glands, pain LUQ (splenomegaly), loss of appetite, fatigue, sore throat,enlarged reddened tonsils, fever, headache
Mono treatment Rest, throat soothing measures, acetaminophen/ibuprofen, low impact activity, gradually increase activity
Hodgkins disease-infects the lymph nodes (painless enlargement of lymph nodes) S/s- weight loss, fever, night sweats, fatigue, anemia, decline in immune defense. Presence of Reed Sternberg
Hodgkins lymphoma and Non-hodgkin lymphoma treatment Chemotherapy and radiation
Non-hodgkin lymphoma Enlargement of lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy) especially in cervical region. No presence of Reed-sternberg cells
Lymphedema Accumulation of fluid in lymph nodes caused by infection, tumor growth or injury
Lymphedema treatment Mechanical methods to improve drainage and drugs to promote water loss
Apnea Temporary cessation of breathing
Tachypnea EXcessive rate of breath causes decreased ph level
Hyperpnea Increase in depth and rate of breathing
Dyspnea Subjective feeling of difficult or labored breathing
Hypoxemia Low O2 level in blood
Hypoxia Low O2 in tissues
COPD associated with chronic bronchitis and emphysema Chronic bronchitis- airway lining is inflamed and produces excessive secretion Emphysema- dilation and destruction of alveoli
COPD s/s *COPD is chronic Normal air flow obstructed, reduced exchange of O2 and CO2, airtrapping and over inflation of lungs , dyspnea
Bronchitis Inflammation of bronchioles
Asthma *Asthma is acute Symptoms of asthma- wheezing, coughing, SOB
Asthma treatment Inhaled steroids to prevent inflammation and bronchodilators to open airways
TB is caused by myobacterium tuberculosis Risks- patient with chronic illness, elderly, low immunity, smokers, alcholics, homeless
Tb- enters lungs where T cells mediate response occurs to inactivate the diesease. Lesions form and may liquefy causing cavity in organ Spreads to lymph nodes, thorax, trachea,bronchi, pleura (pleural effusion- collection of fluid in pleural space)
S/s of TB Fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, night sweats, low-grade fever, productive cough, hemoptysis, chest pain, anxiety
Complications of TB Obstructive respiratory disease, respiratory failure and death
Complete or partial collapse of lung- develops when alveoli become deflated- usually occurs 24-48 hours post op
Atelectasis s/s Troubled breathing, cough and low grade fever
Atelectasis treatment Breathing excercises, medication, and surgery
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ards) Inflammatory condition of the lung resulting from injury or infection. Alveoli fill with fluids, expand and burst
Causes of ARDS Airway obstruction, sepsis, aspiration, allergy, lung trauma
Complication of ARDS Pulmonary edema, dyspnea, decreased compliance, hypoxemia and formation of scar tissue in lungs, atelectasis
Pneumothorax- caused by wound in chest wall or rupture of the lung's air spaces Accumulation of air in pleural space. Lung on affected side collapses partially or completely
Hemothorax- first priority is to stop bleeding Blood in pleural space, caused by penetrating chest wounds
Pneumohemothorax Accumulation of blood and gas in pleural cavity
Pulmonary embolism Venous blood clot (venous thrombi)- lung infection (decreased blood flow)
Lung cancer s/s Chronic cough, bloody sputum, recurrent pleural effusion, exudate accumulates in alveoli with pneumonia
Lung cancer risks Smoking early in life, smoking large amount daily
Bronchogenic carcinoma Tumor growth blocks bronchus- cutting off air supply to that lung, lung then collapses, trapping secretions which become infected resulting in pneumonia
Created by: Epirtle



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