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Chp. 17 Eval. Ortho

Chapter 17- The face and related structures

What 4 bones form the face? frontal, maxillary, nasal, and zygomatic.
Define occlusion. The process of closing or being closed.
Define malocclusion. A deviation in the normal alignment of two opposable tissues.
What are the two main reasons movement in the TMJ joint is important? Communication and mastication.
What makes up the TMJ joint? Synovial articulation between the mandibular condylar process and the temporal bone.
What are the three sections of the ear? External, middle, and inner.
What are the important structures of the external ear? Auricle and auditory meatus.
What are the important structures of the middle ear? Tympanic membrane, auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes), and eustachian tube.
What are the important structures of the inner ear? Cochlea and semicircular canals.
What forms the nasal septum? Posterior half by the vomer bone and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, meets with the nasal cartilage anteriorly to separate the nasal passage into two halves.
What forms the floor of the nasal cavity? Anteriorly: hard palate. Posteriorly: soft palate
What is the order of air moving through the nose? Nostrils, choanae (inferior, middle, and superior), pharynx, trachea, and lungs.
What is the purpose of the mucosal cells? Warm and humidify air.
What is the most superficial portion of the throat? Larynx
What protects the larynx? Superiorly: thyroid cartilage. Inferiorly: cricoid cartilage.
What is the main function of the hyoid bone? Attachment site for the tongue.
What are the two divisions of the mouth? Oral vestibule (area from the lips to the teeth) and Oral cavity (everything past the teeth leading towards the trachea).
What are papillae and what do they do? Small, rough projections on the surface of the tongue that assist in the movement of food during chewing.
What are the 3 major anatomical areas of a tooth? Root, neck, and crown.
What two substances cover a tooth? Dentin and enamel.
What is Bell's palsy? Inhibition of the facial nerve secondary to trauma or disease, resulting in flaccidity of the facial muscles. In individuals suffering from Bell's palsy, the face on the involved side appears elongated.
What are important things to know when dealing with the history of an ear injury? Location of pain, activity and injury mechanism, other symptoms (equilibrium or tinnitus).
What are important things to know when dealing with the history of a nose injury? Location of pain, onset, activity and injury mechanism, symptoms, and medical history.
What are important things to know when dealing with the history of a throat injury? Location of pain, onset, activity and injury mechanism, and symptoms.
What are important things to know when dealing with a maxillofacial injuries? Location of pain, onset, activity and injury mechanism, and other symptoms (vision impairment, eye movement problems).
What should be inspected in the ear area? Auricle (pinna or auricular hematoma), tympanic membrane, and periauricular area (Battle's sign).
What should be inspected in the nose area? Alignment, epistaxis, septum and mucosa, and eyes and face (raccoon eyes).
What should be inspected in the throat area? Respiration, thyroid and cricoid cartilage.
What should be inspected in the face and jaw area? Bleeding, ecchymosis, symmetry, and muscle tone (Bell's palsy).
What should be inspected in the oral cavity? Lips, teeth, tongue, lingual frenulum, and gums.
Define tinnitus? Ringing in the ears.
Define sinusitis? Inflammation of the nasal sinus.
Define epistaxis? A nosebleed.
Define dental caries? A destructive disease of the teeth; cavities.
Define trigeminal neuralgia? A painful condition involving cranial nerve V, with possible motor involvement to one side of the mouth and paraesthesia in the cheek.
What should be palpated when evaluating a facial injury? Nasal bone, nasal cartilage, zygoma, maxilla, TMJ joint, periauricular area, external ear, teeth, mandible, hyoid bone, and cartilages.
Name the functional test you can use on a facial injury? Hearing, balance, smell, mouth movement.
What neurologic tests can be used on a facial injury? Cranial nerve test.
Created by: gunrock
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