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Pharm Principles

Pathopharm Exam 1

Drugs have three names Chemical Name Generic Name Trade Name
Absorption Movement of substance across membranes into body fluids; dependent on route of administration
Distribution Transport through body
Metabolism Body takes the drug and breaks it down; some drugs are not active until metabolized
Excretion Exiting the body
Schedule I Drug No known medical purpose/political reason; high abuse potential
Schedule II Drug Known medical purpose; high potential for abuse (stimulants/cocaine/hydrocodone)
Schedule III Drug Potential for abuse; medical purpose
Schedule IV less potential for abuse; medical purpose
Schedule V Most OTC medications
Bioavailability amount of drug after first pass available to be used by the body; affected by the route of admine
First Pass Effect drug pass through stomach and is taken up to the liver for metabolism, then absorbed into systemic circulation for use. Part of drug no longer available.
Organs responsible in metabolism liver = most; kidneys, lungs, plasma, intestinal mucosa also
Half Life time it takes for 1/2 of the original amount of the drug in the body to be removed
Therapuetic Index the minimum effective concentration to the amount of toxicity
Plateau Principle the "steady state"; maintainence
Pharmacodynamics the way a drug works on the body
Receptors where the drug binds
Enzymes breakdown/cause action
Non-specific effect act without receptors; work independently; once bound, may cause a second reaction.
Pharmocotherapeutics SMART; what is the expected outcome?
Supplemental Drugs When body is missing something
Palliative Drugs makes better, but no cure
Prophylactic Drugs prevent (antibiotics sometimes/birth control)
Accumulation a drug being absorbed more quickly than it can be eliminated or when it is administered before the previous dose has been metabolized
Synergistic effects combined drug effects are greater that when given separately
Teratogenic effects structural defect in the unborn fetus
Category A Drug Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester; the least harmful
Category B Drug Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
Category C Drug Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use despite risks
Category D there is positive evidence of fetal risk but the benefits from use may be acceptable
Category X fetal abnormalities and evidence of risk based on human experience; The most harmful
Mutagenic changes in genetic composition
carcinogenic cancer causing agent
Created by: ashbee