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Forensics Unit 1

Chapters 1,2,3

TermDefinition
Expert Witness An individual whom the court determines to possess knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average layperson.
Locard's Exchange Principle Whenever two objects come into contact with one another, they exchange materials between them.
Scientific Method A process that uses strict guidelines to ensure careful and systematic collection, organization, and analysis of information.
Autopsy The medical dissection and examination of a body in order to determine the cause of death.
Chain of Custody A list of all people who came into possession of an item of evidence
Finished Sketch A precise rendering of the crime scene usually drawn to scale.
Physical Evidence Any object that can establish that a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victim or its perpetrator.
Rough Sketch A draft representation of all essential information and measurements at a crime scene. This sketch is drawn at the crime scene.
Standard/Reference Sample Physical evidence whose origin is known, such as blood or hair from a suspect, that can be compared to crime-scene evidence.
Substrate Control Uncontaminated surface material close to an area where physical evidence has been deposited. This sample is to be used to ensure that the surface on which a sample has been deposited does not interfere with laboratory tests.
Class Characteristics Properties of evidence that can be associated only with a group and never with a single source.
Comparison The process of ascertaining whether two or more objects have a common origin.
Identification The process of determining a substance's physical or chemical identity. Drug analysis, species determination, and explosive residue analysis are typical examples of this undertaking in a forensic setting.
Individual Characteristics Properties of evidence that can be attributed to a common source with an extremely high degree of certainty.
Reconstruction The method used to support a likely sequence of events by observing and evaluating physical evidence and statements made by those involved with the incident.
Created by: Mr.Devine