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Neural cells


2 categories of cells in the nervous system Neurons process and transmit info. Glia maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons.
Most common glia (5) ASOME: Astrocytes, Schwann cells, Oligodendrocytes, Microglia, Ependymal cells
Astrocytes CNS, grey & white matter - Provide supporting network in the brain by forming a complete lining on external surface of brain and blood vessels in CNS. Contribute to blood-brain barrier. Forms scars around dead brain tissue.
Schwann cells PNS - make up the myelin sheath in PNS, constitute fibrous connective tissue around PNS fibers.
Oligodendrocytes CNS - make up the myelin sheath in CNS.
Microglia CNS - travel to the site of lesion and engulf cellular debris before removing it.
Ependymal cells Ventricular cavity - form lining around ventricular surface.
Neuronal transmission of information, Step 1 Signal enters dendrite
Neuronal transmission of information, Step 2 Signal is summed up
Neuronal transmission of information, Step 3 Signal triggers action potential on the axon
Neuronal transmission of information, Step 4 Signal travels down the axon
Neuronal transmission of information, Step 5 Nodes of Ranvier boost the signal (saltatory conduction)
Neuronal transmission of information, Step 6 Possible connection to other dendrites or target cells via the synapse
Structural Types of Neurons in CNS (5) Neuroblasts, unipolar neurons, bipolar neurons, multipolar neurons, pseudounipolar neuron
Neuroblasts start as neural stem cells (which turn into most types of cells in the CNS). Neural stem cells differentiate into cells called neuroblasts which can only become neurons.
Unipolar neurons only have one axon (or process), these are mainly present during development
Bipolar neurons one soma, one axon, and one dendrite
Multipolar neurons one soma, one axon, but has multiple dendrites (most common structural type of neuron in adult humans)
Pseudounipolar neuron one soma, one short process that divides into two long processes going in different directions.
Resting membrane potential Without input, most neurons have a stable electrical charge, more negative on the inside of the cell membrane and more positive on the outside.
Graded potentials once information from inputs reaches a threshold potential, the neuron fires. Size and duration depends on the size and duration of the inputs.
Action potentials large in size, brief in duration; usually the same size and duration for any particular neuron (all or nothing).
Effect of potassium pump We end up with more Na+ outside and more K+ inside. 3:2 ratio makes the outside charge more positive (-70 mV difference), but resting cell membrane is highly permeable to K+ and may “leak” out.
Created by: ashea01



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