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Ch 19 Bios 254

QuestionAnswer
What are the formed elements of blood? "Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Leukocytes (white blood cells) Platelets",
What is hematocrit? "The percentage of erythrocytes (red blood cells) out of the total blood volume. It makes up 45% of the blood",
Blood is the body's only ________ Fluid tissue,
What percentage of the blood does plasma make up? 55%,
What is the buffy coat? "After blood has been put in a centrifuge, it is the thin layer of Leukocytes between the Plasma layer (top) and the Eurythrocytes (bottom) It is normally less than 1% of the of the blood.",
Describe the physical characteristics of blood. "It is slightly acidic. Usually between 7.35 and 7.45 pH metallic taste 8% of the body weight Temperature is slightly higher
Blood transports Oxygen and nutrients from the digestive tract travel via the _____. Portal Vein,
Blood transports Metabolic wastes from cells to the lungs and kidneys for elimination travel via _____. Intracellular Metablolism,
Blood transports Hormones from the _________ glands to target organs. Endocrine,
Blood regulates: (3 things) "Body temperature Normal pH in body tissues using buffer systems. Adequate fluid volume in circulatory system",
What percentage of CO2 is carried out in the hemoglobin? 20%,
Albumin is produced in the ______ Liver,
Describe the shape of eruthrocytes Bi-concave,
How does the body increase blood cells? "They are renewed by the cells of the bone marrow. They do NOT divide.",
What is a unique characteristic of the WBC? They are the only complete cells within the blood including a nucleus.,
How does the body protect from blood loss? By initiating a clot once a vessel is broken.,
Blood prevents infection by: (3 things) "Synthesizing and utilizing antibodies (B Lymphocytes) Activating complement proteins Activating WBC to defend the body",
Which cells are the killer cells? T Cells,
What do B lymphocytes do? Secrete antibodies,
Blood plasma contains how many solutes? Over 100,
Name 2 characteristics of Erythrocytes "Bi-concave which increases surface area More than 97% hemoglobin to function in gas transport",
What is hemoglobin composed of? Two alpha and two beta chains with each being bound to a heme group,
What is a characteristic of a heme group? They each bear an atom of iron which can bind to one oxygen.,
How many oxygen molecules can each hemoglobin transport? Four - one for each heme group.,
How many hemoglobins does each RBC have? 250 Million resulting in 1 billion molecules of oxygen for each red blood cell.,
What is the mama stem cell in blood? Hemocytoblasts,
What is the word for blood cell formation? Hematopoiesis,
Where does hematopoieisis occur? "In the axial skeleton and girdles On the Epiphyses of the humerus and femur Epiphyses is E for End.",
How does the hemocytoblast specialize? The membrane surface has receptors which respond to different hormones in order to specialize.,
What are the characteristics of circulating eurythrocytes (rbc)? 1 main and 2 sub. "The number remains constant to maintain balance. Imbalance results in: Too few is tissue hypoxia Too many increases viscosity and also leads to tissue hypoxia.",
How long is the life cycle of Erythrocytes? (RBC) 120 Days,
What is the term used for the creation of blood? Erythropoiesis.,
What hormone is released by the kidneys in order to create blood? Erythropoeitin.,
Free iron is (2 things) "Toxic
Transported in the body by transferrin as a protein complex",
Erythropoiesis requires (6 things) "Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates Iron vitamin b12 folic acid",
Describe the death of Erythrocytes through the release of amino acids into circulation. "Old RBC become fragile begins to deteriorate;Engulfed by macrophages in spleen; Heme and globin are separated; Iron is salvaged for re-use; Globin is metabolized into amino acids and released into circulation",
Describe the death of erythrocytes beginning after the globin metabolization. "Heme w/o iron degraded 2 yellow pigment-bilirubin; bilirubin bound 2 albumin; liver secretes bilirubin 2 intestines-bile; bile used in digestion; intestines metabolize bile 2 urobilinogen; degraded pigment exits in feces-stercobilin",
2 characteristics of anemia: "It is a symptom not a disease; it is when the blood has abnormally low oxygen carrying capacity.",
3 causes of anemia "Hemorrhagic (loss of blood); Hemolytic (break down of blood); Aplastic (under productive bone marrow - indicative of leukemia)",
3 types of anemia Low iron is,microcytic anemia - cells are small,; Low b12 is,Pernicious anemia - requires intrinsic factor,; Abnormally large red blood cells is,macrocytic anemia,
3 characteristics of sickle cell anemia "Results from a defective gene with a single amino acid substitution in the beta chain (HB S); defect causes RBCs to become sickle shaped in low oxygen situations; Patients with sickle cell have a better chance of surviving malaria.",
What are granulocytes and thier characteristics? "They have granules; The three types are neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils.",
Which leukocytes are the big guns? Neutrophils - make up 50-70%,
Eosinophils _____ "Make up 1-4% of wbc's; Lessen the severity of allergies by phagocytizing immune complexes.",
Basophils ________ "Make up .5% of wbc's; Release histamine and heparin",
Agranulocytes _________ "Two types: lympohocytes and monocytes; Lack visible granules",
The production of Leukocytes is called Leukopoiesis,
Acute leukemia involves what type of cell? blast type cell
Leukemia is characterized by what three things? "Bone marrow is occupied by cancerous leukocytes (anemia); Large number of non-functional leukocytes are produced (high wbc count); Major cause of death is a bleeding infection.",
Mono-neucleosis is caused by what? Epstein barr virus,
What are platelets? Fragments of megakaryocytes,
Hemostasis is basically what? Turning fibrinogen into fibrin in order to stop bleeding.,
Describe platelet plug formation. "Blood vessel is damaged; Platelets are attracted to the endothelium; Platelets stick to exposed collagen fibers; This releases seratonin and ADP to attract more platelets.",
Coagulation involves what two types of pathways? Intrinsic and Extrinsic,
What are the final three steps of coagulation? "Prothrombin activator is formed; Prothrombin is converted to thrombin; Thrombin catalyzes the joining of fibrinogen into a fibrin mesh.",
Why is vitamin K important to clotting? "It is required to synthesize the clotting factors 2,7,9 and 10.",
Define Thrombus A clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel.,
Define Embolus: A free floating thrombus.,
What three substances can prevent a clot? "Aspirin (blocks platelet plug); Heparin (Inhibits thrombin); Warfarin (aka coumadin - interferes with vitamin K synthesis)",
"Which blood groups, when improperly transfused, cause a vigorous reaction?" ABO and Rh,
"In respect to the ABO blood group, what does it consist of?" "Two antigens (A & B antiglutinogens) on the surface of the rbc's.; Two antibodies (anti A & anti B) in the plasma.",
What is hemolytic disease of a newborn a result of? An Rh- mother is sensitized after the birth of an Rh+ child. Therefore the next child who is Rh+ runs the risk of being Hemolytic due to the antibodies the mother has developed.,
What is polycythemia? Too many rbc's,
What is the percentage of hemoglobin in normal blood? 12-18% g/100 cc,
What are causes of polycythemia? "lack of oxygen ie. COPD, emphysema, bronchitis, bone marrow cancer - heart failure if not enough blood is pumping enough nutrients; High altitude",
What are causes of anemia? "Iron deficiency; kidney failure; hemmorhage",
How do you measure hemoglobin? add some form of agent to lice the cell and use a heboglobinometer to remove and measure hemoglobin.,
If blood types are crossed - the result is: Clotting.,
Cholesterol is made in the _____ Liver
Created by: azcerkic