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Chapter 10 Key Terms

active partition For MBR hard drives, the primary partition on the drive that boots the OS. Windows calls the active partition the system partition.
active recovery image In Windows 8 the custom refresh image of the Windows volume that will be used when a refresh of the Windows installation is performed.
Backup and Restore The Windows 7/Vista utility used to create and update scheduled backups of user data and the system image.
basic disk The term Windows uses that applies to a hard drive when the drive is a stand-alone drive in the system.
BootMgr In Windows 8/7/Vista the boot manager program responsible for loading Windows.
boot partition The hard drive partition where the Windows OS is stored. The system partition and the boot partition may be different partitions.
cd (change directory) The Windows command to change the current default directory.
CDFS (Compact Disk File System) The 32-bit file system for CD discs and some CD-R and CD-RW discs. AKA UDF.
chkdsk (check disk) A Windows command to verify the hard drive does not have bad sectors that can corrupt the file system.
cluster On a magnetic hard drive one or more sectors that constitute the smallest unit of space on the drive for storing data. AKA file allocation unit. Files are written to a drive as groups of whole clusters.
Complete PC Backup A Vista utility that can make a backup of the entire volume on which Vista is installed and can also back up other volumes. Compare with system image in Windows 7/8.
copy The Windows command to copy a single file, group files, or folder and its contents.
custom refresh image In Windows 8 an image of the entire Windows volume, including the Windows installation. The image can be applied during a Windows 8 refresh operation.
defrag The Windows command that examines a magnetic hard drive for fragmented files and rewrites these files to the drive in contiguous clusters.
defragment A drive maintenance procedure that rearranges fragments or parts of files on a magnetic hard drive so each file is stored on the drive in contiguous clusters.
del The Windows command to delete a file or group of files. AKA erase command.
dir The Windows command to list files and directories.
Disk Cleanup A Windows utility to delete temporary files to free up space.
dynamic disk A way to partition one or more hard drives so that the drives can work together to store data in order to increase space for data or to provide fault tolerance or improved performance. Also see RAID.
dynamic volume A volume type used with dynamic disks by which you can create a single volume that uses space on multiple hard drives.
EFI System Partition (ESP) The original version of UEFI that was first developed by Intel.
elevated command prompt window A Windows command prompt window that allows commands that require administrator privileges.
expand The Windows command that extracts files from compressed distribution files, which are often used to distribute files for software installation.
extended partition On an MBR hard drive the only partition on the drive that can contain more than one logical drive. In Windows, a hard drive can have only a single extended partition. Compare with primary partition.
FAT (file allocation table) A table on a hard drive, USB flash drive, or floppy disk used by the FAT file system that tracks the clusters used to contain a file.
File History In Windows 8 the utility that can schedule and maintain backups of data. It can also create a system image for backward compatibility with Windows 7.
format The Windows command to prepare a hard drive volume, logical drive, or USB flash drive for use by placing tracks and sectors on its surface.
fragmented file A file that has been written to different portions of the disk so that it is not in contiguous clusters.
Globally Unique Identifier Partition Table (GUID or GPT) One of two methods used to organize partitions on a hard drive. A GPT partitioning system installed on a hard drive can support 128 partitions and is recommended for drives larger than 2TB.
hardware RAID One of two ways to implement RAID. Hardware RAID is more reliable and better performing than software RAID and is implemented using UEFI/BIOS on the motherboard or a RAID controller card.
help The Windows command to get help about another command.
high-level formatting The process creates the boot record, file system, and root directory on a hard drive volume or logical drive, a floppy disk, or a USB flash drive. AKA formatting, OS formatting, or operating system formatting.
initialization files Text files that keep hardware and software configuration information, user preferences, and application settings and are used by the OS when first loaded and when needed by hardware, applications, and users.
logical drive On an MBR hard drive a portion or all of a hard drive extended partition that is treated by the operating system as though it were a physical drive or volume. Each logical drive is assigned a drive letter, such as drive F, and contains a file system.
low-level formatting A process (usually performed at the factory) that electronically creates the hard drive tracks and sectors, and tests for bad spots on the disk surface.
Master Boot Record (MBR) One of two methods used to organize the partition tables on a hard drive. On an MBR hard drive, the first sector on the drive is called the MBR and contains the partition table and a program BIOS uses to boot an OS from the drive.
master file table (MFT) The database used by the NTFS file system to track the contents of a volume or logical drive.
md (make directory) The Windows command to create a directory.
mounted drive A volume that can be accessed by way of a folder on another volume so that the folder has more available space.
mount point A folder that is used as a shortcut to space on another volume, which effectively increases the size of the folder to the size of the other volume.
Offline Files A Windows utility that allows users to work with files in the folder when the computer is not connected to the corporate network. When the computer is later connected, Windows syncs up the offline files and folders with those on the network.
pagefile.sys The Windows swap file that is used to hold the virtual memory that is used to enhance physical memory installed in a system.
partition table A table that contains information about each partition on the drive. For MBR drives, the partition table is contained in the MBR. For GPT drives, the partition table is stored in the GPT header and a backup of the table is stored at the end of the drive.
primary partition A hard disk partition that can be used to boot the system. An MBR drive can have up to three primary partitions. In Windows, a GPT drive can have up to 128 primary partitions.
quick format A format procedure, used to format a hard drive volume or other drive, that doesn't scan the volume or drive for bad sectors; use it only when a drive has been previously formatted and is in healthy condition.
RAID Several methods of configuring multiple hard drives to store data to increase logical volume size and improve performance, or to ensure that if one hard drive fails, the data is still available from another hard drive.
RAID 0 Using space from two or more physical disks to increase the disk space available for a single volume. Performance improves because data is written evenly across all disks. Windows calls RAID 0 a striped volume.
rd (remove directory) The Windows command to delete a directory (folder) or group of directories (folders).
robocopy (robust file copy) A Windows command that is similar to and more powerful than the xcopy command, used to copy files and folders.
recover The Windows command that can recover a file when part of the file is corrupted.
registry A database that Windows uses to store hardware and software configuration information, user preferences, and setup information
ren (rename) The Windows command to rename a file or group of files.
resiliency In Windows 8 Storage Spaces, the term refers to the degree the configuration can resist or recover from drive failure.
Resilient File System (ReFS) A file system that offers excellent fault tolerance and compatibility with virtualization and data redundancy in a RAID system.
restore point A snapshot of the Windows system, usually made before installation of new hardware or applications. Restore points are created by the System Protection utility.
sector On a hard disk drive or SSD, the smallest unit of bytes addressable by the operating system and UEFI/BIOS. On hard disk drives, one sector usually equals 512 bytes; SSD drives might use larger sectors.
shadow copy A copy of open files made so that open files are included in a backup.
shutdown The Windows command to shut down the local computer or a remote computer.
simple volume A type of volume used on a single hard drive.
slack Wasted space on a hard drive caused by not using all available space at the end of a cluster.
software RAID Using Windows to implement RAID. The setup is done using the Disk Management utility.
Storage Spaces A Windows 8 utility that can create a storage pool using any number of internal or external backup drives. The utility is expected to replace Windows software RAID.
system image The backup of the entire Windows 8/7 volume and can also include backups of other volumes. The backup is made using the Windows 8 File History or Windows 7 Backup and Restore utility.
system partition The partition of the hard drive that contains the boot loader or boot manager program and the specific files required to start the Windows launch.
System Protection A Windows utility that automatically backs up system files and stores them in restore points on the hard drive at regular intervals and just before you install software or hardware.
System Restore A Windows utility used to restore the system to a restore point.
thin provisioning A technique used by Storage Spaces in Windows whereby virtual storage free space can be configured as if it has more virtual storage than the physical storage allotted to it.
track One of many concentric circles on the surface of a hard disk drive.
UDF (Universal Disk Format) A file system for optical media used by all DVD discs and some CD-R and CD-RW discs.
user profile A collection of files and settings about a user account that enables the user's personal data, desktop settings, and other operating parameters to be retained from one session to another
user profile namespace The group of folders and subfolders in the C:\Users folder that belong to a specific user account and contain the user profile.
virtual memory A method whereby the OS uses the hard drive as though it were RAM.
wildcard An * or ? character used in a command line that represents a character or group of characters in a file name or extension.
Windows PowerShell A command-line interface (CLI) that processes objects, called cmdlets, which are prebuilt programs built on the .NET Framework, rather than processing text in a command line.
xcopy A Windows command more powerful than the copy command that is used to copy files and folders.
Created by: latour14455