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OS Chap 10

TermDefinition
active partition The primary partition on the drive that boots the OS. On windows it's called the system partition.
active recovery image On windows 8, its the image windows will revert to when the "refresh" option of windows install is performed.
backup and restore On windows 7, it's a utility used to create scheduled backups of the user's data and update the system image.
basic disk It's what windows calls the hard drive if it's the only one in the system
boot partition The hard drive partition where the OS is stored.
bootMgr The program responsible for loading windows itself
cd (Change directory) the command to change the default directory
CDFS (Compact Disk File System) The 32 bit file system for CD discs
chkdsk (Check Disk) A windows program that checks for bad sectors on a hard drive that could corrupt it.
cluster On or more sectors that constitute the smallest unit of space on the drive for storing data.
Complete PC Backup A program for vista that can make a backup of the entire volume that vista is installed and other volumes as well. (Vista version of System Image)
copy The windows command to copy files or entire folders to other locations
custom refresh image A copy of the entire windows 8 volume and installation. It can be installed during a refresh option of installation
defrag The windows command that finds fragmented parts of a file and rewrites the hard drive to put them together
defragment The process that actually rewrites those files into one continuous part
del The windows command to delete files or entire folders
dir The windows command to list files and folders in a directory
Disk Cleanup A windows utility that deletes temp files to free up space
dynamic disk A way to partition one or more hard drives so that they can store data together as one large drive, or the same data for fault tolerance
dynamic volume A volume that takes up space on multiple hard drives
EFI System Partition (ESP) The original version of UEFI made by intel
elevated command prompt window A command prompt window that allows commands that need administrator rights
erase The same as del, Erases files or folders
expand The command that extracts files from compressed folders
extended partition The only partition on the drive that can contain more than one logical drive
FAT (File allocation table) A table of data that tracks the clusters used to contain a file
file allocation unit A number of a hard drive disk's sectors that are treated as a unit
file history A utility that makes routine backups of files that is also backwards compatible with windows 7
formatting To erase any old data and prepare the device for a specific file system
fragmented file A file that is written to many different segments of a hard drive so it's not contiguous
Globally Unique Identifier partition table (GUID or GPT) One of two methods used to organize partitions on a hard drive
hardware RAID One of two ways to implement RAID. Hardware raid is more reliable and is configured through ufei on the motherboard or raid card
help The windows command to get help about another command
high-level formatting A process done by the windows formatting program. Creates the boot record, file system, and root directory on a hard drive volume
initialization files Text files that contain hardware and software configuration
logical drive Part of a MBR based hard drive that is treated as a separate drive with its own letter and has a file system
low-level formatting A process done at the factory that electronically creates the tracks and sectors, and tests for bad spots on the surface
Master boot record (MBR) One of two methods used to partition tables on a hard drive. The first sector on the drive is called MBR and has the partition table and a program BIOS uses to boot an OS from the drive
master file table (MFT) The database used by the NTFS file system to track the contents of a volume or logical drive
md (Make directory) The windows command to make a directory
mount point A folder that is used as a shortcut to space on another volume
mounted drive A volume that can be accessed by way of a folder on another volume.
Offline Files A windows utility that allows users to work with files in the folder when the computer is not on a corporate network.
pagefile.sys The windows swap file that is stored on the hard drive to enhance physical memory installed in a system
partition table A table that contains information about each partition on the drive.
primary partition A hard disk partition that can be used to boot to start the system
quick format A format procedure that doesn't scan for bad sectors
RAID (Redundant array of inexpensive disks ) A method of storing data on multiple drives so if one fails the other still has the data
RAID 0 Using space from two disks to give one volume the whole amount
rd (remove directory) The windows command to delete a directory folder or group of folders
recover The windows command that can recover a file when part is corrupted
registry A database that windows uses to store hardware and software configuration, user preferences, and setup information
ren (rename) The windows command to rename a file or folder
resiliency In windows 8 storage spaces, the term refers to the degree the configuration can resist or recover from a drive failure
Resilient File System (ReFS) A file system that offers excellent fault tolerance and compatibility with virtualization and data redundancy in a raid system
restore point A snapshot of the windows system, usually made before installation of new hardware or applications
robocopy (Robust file copy) A windows command that is more powerful than Xcopy used to copy files and folders
sector The smallest unit of bytes addressable by the operating system and UEFI/BIOS
shadow copy A copy of open files made so that open files are included in a backup
shutdown The windows command to shut down the PC
simple volume A type of volume used on a single hard drive
slack Wasted space on a hard drive caused by not using all space at the end of the cluster
software raid Using Windows to implement RAID. Done via Disk management utility
storage spaces A windows 8
striping Same as Raid0
system image A backup of the entire windows 8/7 volume and can backup other volumes
system partition The partition of the hard drive the contains the boot loader needed to launch windows
system protection A windows utility that automatically backs up system files and stores them in restore points on the hard drive
system restore A windows utility used to restore the system to a restore point
thin provisioning A technique used by storage spaces in windows where virtual storage free space can be configured as if it has more virtual than physical allotted to it
track A concentric circle on the surface of a hard drive
UDF (Universal Disk Format) A file system for optical medica used by all dvd disks
user profile A collection of files and settings about a user account that enable the user's personal data, desktop settings, and other operating settings to be kept from one session to the other
User profile namespace The group of folders in the C:\Users folder that belong to a specific user
virtual memory Os uses hard drive as if it were ram
wildcard A * or ? used in command lines that represents a character or group of characters in a file name or extension
windows powershell A command line interface that has small programs to do what long CMD commands do
xcopy A windows command more powerful than copy that lets you copy files and folders
Created by: doerschlag11188