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Exam 1 anatomy 202

QuestionAnswer
What are the stages for RBC development? hemocytoblast...myeloid stem cell...colony forming unit- erythrocyte (CFU-E)...proerythroblast...reticulocyte....Erythroctye
what event does not occur when the semilunar valves are open? ventricles are in diastole
Where do hemocytoblasts originate from? myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells
the left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to pump blood with greater pressure
What are blood cells formed from? pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells- hemocytoblasts
What are the components of hemoglobin globin-two alpha and beta chains Heme- irion containing, ringlike nonprotein pigment
blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the left atrium
small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the papillary muscles
How much hemoglobin usually makes up the RBC about 1/3 of cells weight
Red blood cell (erythrocyte) contain oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin males- 5.4 million/uL females- 4.8 million/uL
the source of blood carried to the capillaries in the myocardium would be the coronary arteries
the fact that the left ventricle of the heart is thicker than the right ventricle reveals that it pumps blood against a greater resistance
Platelets special cell fragments, thrombocytes that help stop blood loss from damaged vessels
What is the most common WBC Neutrophils
If cardiac muscle is deprived if its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from decreased delivery of oxygen
if the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells tetanic contractions might occur might occur, which would stop the hearts pumping action
norepinephrine acts on the heart by causing the threshold to be reached more quickly
if the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that the heart would increase by about 25 beats per minute
What are the two types of agranular leukocytes lymphocytes, monocytes
which vessel of the heart receives blood during right ventricular systole pulmonary trunk
which vessel receives blood during ventricular systole both the aorta and pulmonary trunk
which in not apart of the conduction system of the heart? AV valve
the tricuspid valve is closed when the ventricle is in systole
when viewing a dissected heart, it is easy to visually discern the right and left ventricles by noticing the thickness of ventricular walls
what are the AV valves supported by? the chordae tendineae so that the regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur
What is true about myocardial cells? the entire heart contracts as a unit or it does not contract at all
what is the myocardium? a layer of the heart that actually contracts
What are the three types of granular leukocytes? neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
during the period of ventricular filling blood flows passively through the atria and the open AV valves into the ventricles
the second heart sound is heard during which phase of the cardiac cycle isovolumetric relaxation
What is a statement about cardiac output a slow heart rate increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, and force of contraction
during contraction of the heart muscle cells some calcium enters the cell from the extracellular space and triggers the release of larger amounts of calcium from intracellular stores
isovolumetric contraction refers to the short period during ventricular systole when the ventricles are completely closed chambers
Where is the heart located? between the lungs in the mediastinum with about two-thirds of its mass to the left of the midline
What are the layers of the pericardium? outer fibrous pericardium and inner serous pericardium (epicardium)
What is the function of fibrous pericardium? protects and anchors the heart, prevents over stretching
What does the serous pericardium have? a parietal and visceral layers
Both the parietal and visceral layers makes what? pericardial cavity and reduces the friction between two membranes
peridarditis inflammation of the pericardium
bleeding into the pericardial cavity which compresses the heart and is potentially lethal cardiac tamponade
What are the three layers of the heart? epicardium myocardium endocardium
What kind of tissue is found in the epicardium and endocardium? simple squamous ep, and connective tissue
What kind of tissue makes up the myocardium? cardiac muscle tissue
What are the two types of valves? AV and semilunar valves
Where is the tricuspid and bicuspid valve found? in the AV valve
Where is the heart is the tricuspid valve found between the right atrium and right ventricle
Where in the heart is the bicuspid valve found? between left atrium and left ventricle
What two valves make up the semilunar valves? pulmonary semilunar and aortic semilunar valvve
Where does blood flow in the pulmonary semilunar valve? from the right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk
Where does blood flow in the aortic semilunar valve? from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta
What is the function of AV valves? allow blood to flow from atria into ventricles when ventricular pressure is lower than atrial pressure
What is the function of semilunar valves? allow blood to flow into the pulmonary trunk and aorta prevents blood from returning to ventricles
How do AV valves work? ventricles, chordae tendineae papillary muscles relax AV valves close ventricles contract increase blood pressure in ventricles push valve cusps closed, papillary muscles contract pull cords and cusps don't evert
How do semilunar valves work? open w/ ventricular contraction, allowing blood into pulmonary trunk and aorta Close w/ ventricular relaxation, blood fills valve cusps and tightly closes
What does the SA node do? generates an action potential spontaneously 90-100 times per minute, begins heart activity that spreads through intercalated discs to all cardiac muscle cells in both atria
What does the AV node? in atrial septum, fires at 40-50 times per minute, transmits bundle of His
What does AV bundle do? (bundle of His) connection between atria and ventricles, divides into bundle branches
What do the right and left bundle branches do? conduct signals quickly int the interventricular septum
What does the SA node do? sets pace the fastest, in 50msec excitation spreads through both atria and down to AV node in 50 msec excitation spreads through both ventricles simultaneously
What is the sequence of in which the cardiac action potential spreads through the conduction system? Excitation spreads from SA node to AV node which transmits signal to AV bundle, through the purkinje fibers and then to the SA node
Define the action potential of contractile fibers resting membrane potential is -90mv, Na+ going into cell, slowly Ca+2 enters from outside the cell and K+ remain closed, Ca+2 binds to troponin in tension development, Ca+2 closes, K+ opens, -90mv is restored
systole contraction
diastole relaxation
P wave .atrial depolarization
P to Q interval conduction from atrial to ventricular excitation
QRS complex ventricular depolarization
T wave ventricular repolarization
What is the first sound on the ECG? closingn of AV valves
What is the second sound on the ECG? closing of SL valves
What is the end diastolic volume? volume in ventricle at end of diastole, about 130 mL
What is end systolic volume? volume in ventricle at end of systole. about 60 mL
what is stroke volume? the volume ejected per beat from each ventricle, about 70 mL
What is cardiac output? the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta
What is cardiac reserve? the max cardiac output a person can achieve/ cardiac output at rest
What is preload? affect of stretching greater the preload, greater the stroke volume
What is contractility? strength of contraction at any given time positive-more forceful negative-less forceful
What is afterload? backwards pressure the greater the pressure, stroke volume decreases
What are the structural and functional characteristics of the autonomic nervous system? CNS-brain and spinal cord PNS-
Where are postganglionic located? parasympathetic, sympathetic sweat glands, blood vessels in skeletal muscle and arrector pili muscle
What are preganglionic? acetycholine
Sympathetic nervous system fight or flight response
parasympathetic nervous system rest and digest response
where is the ganglia in the parasympathetic nervous system located? close to visceral organ
where is the ganglia in the sympathetic nervous system located? alongside vertebral column and anterior to vertebral column
cholinergic neurons release acetycholine
cholinergic receptors receptors on the postsynaptic membrane that bind acetylcholine
Adrenergic neuron release norepinephrine
Adrenergic receptors bind norepinephrine and epinephrine
Transportation O2 CO2 metabolic wastes, nutrients, heat and hormones
regulation pH through buffers, body temp, water content of cells by interaction with dissolved ions and proteins
What is the average blood volume for males 5-6 Liters
What is the average blood volume for females 4-5 liters
how much saline is in the blood? .85-.9% of total body weight
How is blood different from water it is thicker and flows more slowly
Plasma straw colored liquid that contains dissolved substances including clotting factors
serum plasma minus the clotting factors
How much plasma and formed elements are formed in blood 55% plasma and 45% formed elements
What are the percentages of the components in blood? 91.5% water and 8.5% other solutes
What are the plasma proteins? fibrinogen, globulins, and lipoproteins
What do fibrinogens do? clotting factors
what do globulins do? provide antibodies
What do lipoproteins provide? albumins and specialized carrier proteins
what is vascular spasm damage to blood vessel stimulates pain receptors
Platelet plug formation platelets stick to exposed collagen in connective tissue underlying damaged epithelial cells in vessel wall
How does platelet plug formation work? activation leads to activation of other platelets and release vasoconstrictors decreasing blood flow
what are the stages involved in blood clotting formation of prothrombinase- intrinsic or extrinsic pathways conversion of prothrombin into thrombin- final common pathway conversion of soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin
Extrinsic pathway leak tissue factor into bloodstream presence of Ca+2, clotting factors X combine with V form prothrombinase Faster pathway
Intrinsic pathway slower pathway endothelium damaged and platelets come in contact with collagen of blood vessel wall
Final common pathway catalyze the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
How does fibrinolysis work? it clots at a site of a completed repair, break down fibrin protein
What antigen and antibodies does blood type A have antigen A and antibody B
What antigen and antibody does blood type B have antigen B antibody A
what antigen and antibody does blood type AB have both antigen A and B, no antibody
What antigen and antibody does blood type O have no antigen, and antibody A and B
Universal recipients blood type AB
Universal donor blood type O
How does Rh antigens of a first fetus and the mothers immune respond to it? Rh postive and Rh negative babys blood mix and mother creates Rh antibodies unless she receives RhoGam shot
Created by: BrookeMcCullen