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Biochem

Chapter 2 & 3 Vocab

TermDefinition
matter is anything that occupies space and mass
mass is the quantity of matter an object has
atom the simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of an element
nucleus the central region that makes up the bulk of the mass of the atom and consist of two kinds of subatomic particles
proton a positively charged and the neutron has no charge
atomic number the number of protons in an atom
mass number of an atom is equal to the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
electrons in an atom, the number of positively charged protons is balanced by an equal number of small, negatively charged particles called
orbital a three dimensional region around around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
isotopes atoms of the same element that have a different number of electrons
compounds are made up of atoms of two or more atoms or two or more elements in fixed preparations
chemical bonds are the attractive forces that hold atoms together
covalent bond forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
molecule the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance that retains all of the properties of the substance and can exist in a free state
ion an atom or molecule with an electrical charge
ionic bond positive and negative electrical charges attract each other, the sodium ion and chloride ion attract each other
energy the ability to do work
chemical reaction one or more substances to produce one or more substances
reactants shown down the left side of the equation
products of the reactions are shown on the right side
metabolism to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
activation energy amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
catalyst substances that reduce the amount of activation energy needed to start the reaction
enzyme a protein or RNA molecule that speeds up a metabolic reactions without being promptly changed or destroyed
redox reactions reactions in which electrons are transferred between atoms are know as oxidation-reduction reactions or______________
oxidation reactions a chemical reaction in which a reactant loses one or more electrons in such that the reactant become positive and charged
reduction reaction a reactant that gains one or more electrons, thus becoming negative in charge
polar uneven distribution of charge, water is called _________ compound
hydrogen bond the force of attraction between a hydrogen molceule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge.
cohesion an attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
adhesion the attractive force between two particles of different substances, such as water molecules and glass molecules
capillarity the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid
solution a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance
solute a substance dissolved in the solvent
solvent the substance in which the solute is dissolved
concentration a solution is the amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of solution
saturated solution one in which no more solute can dissolve
aqueous solutions solutions in which water is the solvent -- are universally important to living things
hydrogen ion the OH- ion
hydronium ion the H3O+ ion
acid the number of hydronium ions in a solution is greater than the number of hydroxide ions
base the solution that contains more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions and is therefore known as the ________
pH scale a scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution
buffers are chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either acid or a base added solution
organic compounds made primarily of carbon atoms
functional groups clusters of atoms in organic compounds that influence the characteristics of molecules they compose and the chemical reactions the molecules undergo
monomers what many carbon compounds are built up by smaller, simpler molecules
polymer a molecule that consist of repeated, linked units
macromolecules large polymers
condensation reaction monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction
hydrolysis the break down of some complex molecules
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a compound that is available to cells and they store a lot of energy in their overall structure
carbohydrates organic compounds composed of compounds composed of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atom
monosaccharide a monomer of a carbohydrate
disaccharide when two monosaccharides can combine in a condensation reaction to form a double sugar
polysaccharide a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
proteins organic compounds composed of mainly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
amino acids proteins are formed from this linkage of monomers
peptide bond a reaction that releases a water molecule
polypeptides amino acids often form these very long chains
substrate the reaction being catalyzed
active site folds within an enzyme
lipids large, non polar organic molecules that do not dissolve in water
triglycerides lipids include these
phospholipids fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid molecules that are composed of four fused carbon rings with carious functional groups attached to them
nucleic acids very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities
ribonucleic acid (RNA) stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins
nucleotide this is made of 3 main components: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base
Created by: kristinabernathy