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Chapter 2 Vocabulary

Chapter 2 Vocabulary pg. 45

TermDefinition
acid If the number of hydronium ions in a solution is greater than the number of hydroxide ions, the solution
activation energy the amount of energy needed to start the reaction
adhesion is the attractive force between two particles of different substances
aqueous solution solutions in which water is the solvent—are universally important to living things.
atom the simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
atomic number the number of protons in an atom
base then contains more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions and is therefore defined
buffer are chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution.
capillarity which is the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid.
catalysis reduce the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reaction to take place,
chemical bond are attractive forces that hold atoms together
chemical reaction one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances.
cohesion An attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
compound made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions of atoms each element that forms a particular compound
concentration of a solution is the amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of the solution
covalent bond forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
electron the number of positively charged protons is balanced by an equal number of small, negatively charged particles
element are substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
energy as the ability to do work
enzyme a molecule, either protein or RNA, that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions
hydrogen bond is the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge.
hydronium ion The H3O ion is known as the
hydroxide ion The OH ion is known as the h
ion an atom or molecule with an electrical charge
ionic bond positive and negative electrical charges attract each other, the sodium ion and the chloride ion attract each other
isotope atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
mass is the quantity of matter an object has
mass number is equal to the total number of protons and neutrons of the atom
matter is anything that occupies space and mass
metabolism is the term used to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
molecule is the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state
neutron negatively charged
nucleus the central region
orbital a three-dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
oxidation reaction a reactant loses one or more electrons, thus becoming more positive in charge.
pH scale Scientists have developed a scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution.
polar uneven distribution of charge
product of this reaction are shown on the right side.
proton a positively charged
reactant are shown on the left side of the equation.
redox reaction reactions in which electrons are transferred between atoms are known as oxidation-reduction reactions
reduction reaction a reactant gains one or more electrons, thus becoming more negative in charge
saturated solution is one in which no more solute can dissolve.
solute is a substance dissolved in the solvent
solution is a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance
solvent is the substance in which the solute is dissolved.
Created by: tatepilch