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Net+ N10-006

Network+ N10-006 Exam Collection

QuestionAnswer
/24 255.255.255.0 1 network 254 hosts
/25 255.255.255.128 2 networks 126 hosts
/26 255.255.255.192 4 networks 62 hosts
/27 255.255.255.224 8 networks 30 hosts
/28 255.255.255.240 16 networks 14 hosts
/29 255.255.255.248 32 networks 6 hosts
/30 255.255.255.252 64 networks 2 hosts
/31 255.255.255.254 128 networks 1 host
10GBaseSR 300m MMF
10GBaseSW 300m MMF SONET
10GBaseLR 10km SMF
10GBaseLW 10km SMF SONET
10GBaseER 40km SMF
10GBaseEW 40km SMF SONET
10GBaseLX4 over single mode 10km
10GBaseLX4 over multimode 300m
10GBaseCX4 15m Infiniband copper cabling
10GBaseT 40/100m CAT6/6a UTP
IEEE 802.3 Defines Ethernet standards
IEEE 802.3ab Defines 1000BaseT - Gigabit Ethernet over four pairs of wires in CAT5E or better UTP cabling.
IEEE 802.3z Defines Gigabit Ethernet over diffreent cable types broken down to 1000BaseSX (MMF), 1000BaseLX (SMF), 1000BaseCX (coaxial cable)
1000BaseCX Gigabit Ethernet over coaxial cable, supporting distances of up to 25 meters.
IEEE 802.3ae Defines 10 Gigabit Ethernet over fiber-optic cabling
IEEE 802.3an Defines 10 Gigabit Ethernet over copper cabling
FTP TCP 20 (data) / 21 (control messages) in most cases dynamic ports are opened for data and 20 is rarely used.
Telnet TCP 23
SSH TCP 22
DNS 53 UDP and TCP (zone transfers)
DHCP UDP 67. 68 (servers use 67, clients 68)
TFTP UDP 69
SMTP TCP 25
POP3 TCP 110
IMAP4 TCP 143
NetBIOS TCP 137, 138, 139
SMB TCP 445
SNMP UDP 161
RDP TCP 3389
RTP UDP 5004, 5005
SIP TCP/UDP 5060 (clear text), 5061 (encrypted)
H.323 TCP 1720
MGCP TCP 2427, 2727 Media Gateway Control protocol is a complete VoIP or video presentation connection and session controller, taking over the work from SIP (VoIP) and H.323 (video).
Source port, Destination Port, Sequence number, Acknowledgement number, Flags, Checksum TCP Header
Source port, Destination port, Length, Checksum UDP Header
Version, Header length, DIfferentiated services, Time to live, Protocol IP Header
Class A address range and number of hosts 1-126 1.0.0.0-126.255.255.255 16,277,214 hosts
Class B address range and number of hosts 128-191 128.0.0.0-191.255.255.255 65,534 hosts
Class C address range and number of hosts 192-223 192.0.0.0-223.255.255.255 254 hosts
Class D 224-239 224.0.0.0-239.255.255.255 Multicast
Class E 240-255 240.0.0.0-255.255.255.255 Experimental
Class A private address range 10.0.0.0-10.255.255.255 (1 class A network)
Class B private address range 172.16.0.0-172.31.255.255 (16 class B networks)
Class C private address range 192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255 (256 class C networks)
IPv6 address 128 bit address. IPv6 addresses are divided into 8 16-bit octets and expressed in hexadecimal.
0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 ::1 IPv6 loopback address
0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 :: IPv6 for 'no address assigned'.
Three main types of addresses used by IPv6 Unicast Multicast Anycast
IPv6 - Two main types of unicast addresses Global unicast Link-local unicast
Global unicast address IPv6 address. Public and routable on the internet.
Link-local unicast IPv6 address that's automatically assigned to a system and used only for communicating with other nodes on the link. (meaning network, subnet, LAN) Link local addresses always start with FE80.
Feature of ICMPv6. Replaces multicast protocol in IPv4 known as IGMP and is used for multicast communication. Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)
Feature of ICMPv6. Replaces ARP from IPv4 by performing the same function. It's also responsible for finding the router, automatic address assignment and duplicate address detection, to name a few. Neighboring Discovery (ND)
4to6 Special tunnel that allows IPv6 only hosts to communicate on an IPv4 network.
Type of routing protocol that uses distance and direction to find the best route to other routers. This type of protocol uses hop counts to determine metric. Router updates include the entire routing table. Distance vector
Distance vector routing protocols RIPv1, RIPv2, EIGRP (not on exam)
Type of routing protocol that tracks the status and connection type along routes and uses this information to calculate the metric. This type of protocol announces and forwards individual route changes as they appear, rather than the entire routing table. Link state
Link state routing protocols OSPF, IS-IS
Category of routing protocol that autonomous systems use to communicate with each other. EGP (Exterior gateway protocol) BGP
Category that represents the routing protocols used within an autonomous system. IGP (Interior gateway protocol) Further divided into link-state and distance vector protocols
Old and out dated distance vector routing protocol. Should never be used. RIPv1
Old, outdated distance vector protocol. Added support for VLSMs and noncontiguous subnets. Should never be used. RIPv2
Fast popular routing protocol that uses Area IDs. Most companies are using this protocol if they have dynamic routing. OSPF
Link state alternative to OSPF. Very similar. Designed with IPv6 support from the beginning. Popular with ISPs. IS-IS
When a router learns of a route with one protocol and announces those routes over another protocol. IE RIP to OSPF. Route redistribution
A number assigned to a routing protocol to allow routers to prefer one protocol over the other. Administrative distance
Routing protocol that can be used as an IGP and EGP Hybrid routing protocol. BGP is an example of a hybrid routing protocol.
IEEE 802.1Q This standard defines VLANs on an Ethernet network.
Hypervisor that runs on top of an existing OS. Type 2 Hypervisor.
Hypervisor that replaces the host OS on a physical box that does nothing except host virtual machines. Type 1 Hypervisor. VMware ESX.
VPN protocol. Operates at Data Link layer of OSI model. A more advanced version of PPP. Originally only available wiith RRAS on Windows Server PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
Based on Microsoft's PPTP and Cisco's L2F protocols, this VPN technology combines features of PPTP and L2F. Moved service from Windows server to VPN concentrator. IPSec usually provides security. L2TP
This VPN protocol offers an advantage over other technologies because it requires no specific software on the client side. This VPN uses a web browser and SSL to secure the connection. SSL VPN
Most common type of VPN today. Used for site to site and client to site VPN connections. Operates at layer 3 of the OSI model. A major component of this technilogy is Encapsulation Security Payload (ESP) which deals with encryption and authentication. IPSec VPN
Each 64Kbps channel in a DS1 signal is a _____> DS0
T1 line speed and number of DS0 channels. 24 Channels 1.544 Mbps
T3 speed and number of DS0 channels. 672 channels 44.736 Mbps
E1 speed and number of DS0 channels. 32 channels 2.048 Mbps
E3 speed and number of DS0 channels 512 channels 34.368 Mbps
Throughput of Common Optical Carriers: OC-1 51.85 Mbps
The first generation of packet switching technology. It enabled remote devices to communicate with eachother across high-speed digital links without the expense of individual leased lines. X.25 also referred to as CCITT
10000000 128
11000000 192
11100000 224
11110000 240
11111000 248
11111100 252
11111110 254
Termination for a T1 cable to a CSU/DSU RJ48C
This technology allows an individual single-mode fiber to carry multiple signals by giving each signal a different wavelength. This technology works with SONET and Ethernet. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) or the newer more popular version Dense WDM (DWDM), which can support up to 150 signals at nearly 7.77 gigabytes per second.
Similar to DWDM, this technology also relies on wavelengths of light to carry a fast signal over long distances of fiber. Simpler than DWDM, limiting it's practical distance to 60km. Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM). Often used with 10GBase-LX4, in higher end LANs.
Extremely efficient packet-switching standard, designed for and used primarily with T-carrier lines. It works especially well with the on-off traffic of most typical LAN applications. Switches packets quickly without any guarantee of packet integrity. Frame Relay. T-carriers have low error rates. Higher level protocols are responsible for error detection and correction. Now being replaced by ATM and MPLS.
NW technology originally designed for high-spped LANs - early 90s. Became extremely popular for WANs. Until MPLS, most SONET rings moved voice and data all over the world with this packet switched technology. Uses short, fixed-length packets called cells. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). Still being used, but on it's way out as it's slowly being replaced with MPLS.
Newer technology to replace Frame Relay and ATM. Designed for use with TCP/IP protocol. This technology adds a label that site between the L2 header and L3 information. Layer 3 is always IP, so label sits in front of IP header. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS).
WAN technology that uses it's existing dynamic routing protocol to send each other messages about their overhead, enabling QoS to span an entire network of routers. MPLS
Group of devices that tend to send packets to the same place, such as a single broadcast domain of computers connected to a router. Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC) (MPLS)
Router that looks for and forwards packets based on their MPLS label. Label switching router (LSR) (MPLS router)
An MPLS router that has the job of adding MPLS labels to incoming packets that do not yet have a label. Label edge router (LER)
LSRs and LERs use this protocol to communicate dynamic information about their state. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
Feature of MPLS that functions as a fully functional connection to your network used to connect two customer locations. Permanent virtual circuit (PVC)
This test verifies a T-carrier connection from end to end. Every CSU/DSU has a different way to perform this test. Bit error rate test (BERT)
Alternative to Telephony WAN - Many ISPs have started replacing thaie T1, T3 and OC-x line equipment with this technology. Available in varying speeds up to 100Gb/s. 'metro-Ethernet'. Ethernet over SMF getting speeds up to 100Gb/s with DWDM capable switches.
Device that an 8-but parallel digital signal into analog for transmission over phone lines. Modem
Device that takes eight-bit wide digital data and hands it to the modem in one bit wide digital data for conversion to analog. UART. An internal modem is technically a modem and a UART where an external modem connected by serial or USB is just a modem and the UART is in the Serial/USB port.
The current standard for modems. V.92 getting speeds of 57600bps.
Process of sending telephone transmissions across fully digital lines end-to-end is called______________. Integrated Services DIgital Network (ISDN).
ISDN - This channel carries data and voice information using standard DS0 channels (64kbps) B (bearer) channels. Remember that a B channel is a DS0 channel (64kbps)
ISDN - This channel carries setup and configuration information at 16Kbps. D (delta) channel.
Common ISDN setup that includes two B channels and a D channel. This is one physical line but each B channel sends 64kbps for a total of 128kbps. Basic rate interface (BRI).
This ISDN setup is a full T1 line, carrying 23B channels. Primary rate interface (PRI)
Maximum distance from a CO for ISDN. 18,000 feet
DSL that provides equal upload and download speeds of up to 15Mbps. Symmetric DSL (SDSL)
DSL connection that provides download speeds up to 15Mbps and upload speeds up to 1Mbps. Asymmetric DSL (ADSL)
The newest version of DSLachieving variable speeds of up to 100Mbps, in both directions. VDSL (Very High Bitrate DSL). Some carriers use fiber to extend the distance (Verizon FiOS, AT&T U-Verse)
Device housed at the CO that connects multiple customers to the internet. DSLAM - DSL Access Multiplexer
Technology, often built into the DSL 'modem' that enables log on to DSL network. PPPoE (ponit-to-point protocol over Ethernet)
The first group of networking technologies applied to mobile devices, relied on a type of time division multiplexing called TDMA (multiple access). Splitting channels with multipl users. Introduced SIM. Global System for Mobile (GSM) Original version was a 2G standard.
One of the last GSM technologies. An improvement on the original. Offered data speeds up to 384Kbps. EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution)
Cellular technology that came not long after GSM, but used a spread spectrum form of transmission that was totally incompatible with GSM's TDMA. Rather than splitting a channel it changed frequencies used by each user. Was superior to GSM. No SIM. Code division multiple access (CDMA). Original CMDA was a 2G technology.
Final 3G data standard, providing theoretical data speeds of up to 168Mbps, although most implementations rarely passed 10Mbps. Evolved High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA+)
802.16 wireless standard. WiMAX, provided metropolitan areas with wireless access. Ability to broadcast 50+km at over 1Gbps.
Current cellular technology rolled out in the 2010s . Now generally accepted as a true 4G technology. Offering speeds (in theory) of up to 300Mbps download and 75Mbps upload. Long Term Evolution (LTE)
Citrix Remote terminal standard that defines how terminal information is passed between the server and the client. The basis of Microsoft's original Terminal Services. Independent Computing Architecture (ICA)
A remote terminal application that runs on every OS, works nicely in an SSH tunnel, and comes by default with MacOS and nearly every Linux distribution. Virtual Network Computing (VNC)
Protocol that handles the initiation, setup and delivery of VoIP sessions. There are two protocols, both run on top of RTP. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and H.323. Most VoIP solutions are either SIP/RTP or SIP/H.323
Popular streaming video protocol that runs on top of RTP. Used by many streaming video servers such as WMP, Quick time and others. Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)
RTSP Real Time Streaming Protocol. TCP 554
Primary standard for long distance high-speed, fiber-optic transmission in the US. SONET
This WAN technology supports throughput up to 39.8Gbps as defined in the OC-768 standard. SONET
Plan to keep a company's IT systems up and running at a remote backup site(s) after a disaster occurs. Business Continuity Plan (BCP)
The following are examples of ______________ _____________. A file server, single web server, single printer, edge router. Critical nodes
A tool designed by Microsoft to test individual systems for vulnerabilities. Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA)
The two most popular, comprehensive, aggressive network vulnerability scanners. Nessus and OpenVAS (free open source version of Nessus)
Aircrack-ng Open source tool for penetrating every aspect of wireless networks. Aircrack-ng is powerful, relatively easy to use and free.
Name three popular penetration testing tools/systems. Metasploit, Arimitage (front end GUI version of Metasploit), Kali Linux.
reflective DDoS When a botnet sends many out requests from a server's IP address and allows the replies to cause a traffic spike bringing the server down.
Smurf attack Early form of DoS where a systems would send out ping packets to the network broadcast address with a spoofed IP. The flood of replies would cause the spoofed host to go down.
A friendly, or unintentional DoS When a server or network infrastructure is not robust enough to keep up with legitimate demand. Also referred to as Slashdotting and the Reddit effect.
PDoS (permanent DoS) An attack that damages the target machine and renders it inoperable. (An example is an attacker who gains control of a router and makes malicious changes). Also sometimes referred to as Phlashing attacks.
ARP cache poisoning Attack targeting the ARP cache on hosts and switches. The attacker sends out unsolicited ARP packets with it's MAC address as the default gateway, causing hosts to send packets through the attacker first, effectively creating a man-in-the-middle attack.
Packet / Protocol Abuse Taking advantage of a protocol and using it in ways that it was not designed to be used in order to create a threat.
The way (software or methods)and exploit takes advantage of a vulnerability. Attack surface
New attacks using vulnerabilities that haven't yet been identified (or fixed) Zero-day attacks
Early protocol for connecting dial-up modems to an ISP. This protocol was completely insecure and replaced with PPP. SLIP (serial line internet protocol)
Series of standards developed by the NSA that handles methods of preventing RF emanation with special shielding including wall coverings, window film, etc. TEMPEST
Wireless threat where a device blocks wireless signals jamming
The most infamous form of a rogue AP that intentionally mimicks an existing SSID in order to get people to connect to it instead of the legitimate AP. Evil twin.
Process of sending unsolicited messages to another Bluetooth device. Bluejacking
Using weaknesses in the Bluetooth standard to steal information from other Bluetooth devices. Bluesnarfing
Name of encryption cipher used by WEP. RC4
Code in the WEP key (first 24bits) that starts the encryption process. Initialization vector (IV)
3 WEP flaws that make it an insecure, obsolete protocol Key length. 64,128 -24bit IV means keys and IV are short making them easy to crack. Encryption key is static and doesn't change from session to session and shared (the same key is used by all nodes). WEP provides no user authentication, MAC only.
Name two switch hardening techniques Dynamic ARP inspection (DAI), and DHCP snooping.
Switch security measure that prevents an attacker from pretending to be a DHCP server and giving out fake Gateway information. DHCP snooping
Switch security feature that learns about your network's systems and their correct MAC and IP addresses then updates a database of trusted systems. Helps to prevent ARP cache poisoning Dynamic ARP inspection (DAI)
Written document that defines how an organization will protect its IT infrastructure Security policy
This protocol was designed as an upgrade to SSL. Transport Layer Security (TLS)
Authentication and encryption protocol suite that works at the internet/network layer and should be come the dominant authentication and encryption protocol suite as IPv6 continues to roll out. IPSec
IPsec mode where only the payload is encrypted: the destination and source IP addresses and other IP header information are still readable. IPsec Transport Mode
IPsec mode where the entire packet is encrypted and then placed into an IPsec endpoint, where it is encapsulated inside another IP packet. IPsec Tunnel Mode
FTP that operated over an SSH tunnel SFTP
Wireless protocol that works by adding an extra layer of security (TKIP) around the WEP encryption scheme. WPA
Wireless standard that amended 802.11 standard to add much needed security features. Adding 802.1X using EAP and replacing RC4 with AES. 802.11i marketed as WPA2
Name the two methods of user authentication included with PPP. Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), and Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
Authentication method included in PPP that simply transmits the username and password over the connection in plaintext. Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
Safer authentication method included with PPP. Relies on hashes based on a shared secret, usually a password that both ends of the connection know. Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP_
More robust version of CHAP authentication designed by Microsoft. Most common authentication method of modern day dial-up connections. MSCHAP
Authentication protocol for TCP/IP networks with many clients all connecting to a single authenticating server. Uses a Key Distribution Center (KDC) with two processes; Authentication Server (AS) and Ticket Granting Service (TGS). Kerberos
Key Distribution Center (KDC) Cornerstone of Kerberos, which has two processes, (AS) Authentication Server and the Ticket Granting Service (TGS). This is on a domain controller in a Windows environment.
A timestamp issued by the Kerberos TGS has a default lifespan of _____________ in Windows. 10 hours
A one way mathematical function that is run on a string of binary digits of any length that results in a value of some fixed length (often called a checksum or message digest) Cryptographic hash function
Modern day - primary family of cryptographic hash functions Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) includes SHA-1, SHA-2 (which includes SHA-256, SHA-512 variants) and soon to be finalized SHA-3
Protocol developed to create a single standard to allow two devices to authenticate. PPP wrapper that compliant applications can use to accept one of many types of authentication. Only substantial use is in wireless networks. Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
TLS/TTLS network hardening happens in conjunction with _____________. EAP
Protocol developed by Cisco to support AAA in a network with many routers and switches. Uses PAP, CHAP and MD5 hashes. TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus)
Two ways to prevent tailgating. Security guards and mantraps
takes traditional firewall and packages it with many other security services such as network-based IPS, VPN, load balancing, AV, and other features UTM (unified threat management)
Feature of firewalls from Palo Alto Networks that allows traffic to pass through the firewall with no routing or layer two switching occurring on the packets Virtual Wire firewall
Standardized approach to verify that a node meets certain criteria before it is allowed to connect to a network. Network Access Control (NAC)
Cisco's version of Network Access Control, can dictate that specific criteria must be met before allowing a node to connect with to a secure network. Devices that don't meet requirements can be made to connect to an alternate network or shunted. Network Admission Control (NAC)
Cisco tool to implement NAC. This is a feature of certain advanced Cisco appliances, used to query network devices to confirm that they meet minimum security standards before being permitted to connect to the network. Posture assessment
for NAC, a small scanning program that resides on a host and starts each time the machine is booted. It's comprised of modules that perform a thorough inventory of each security-oriented element on the computer. Persistent agent
A small agent, downloaded and run on demand to scan the security of a PC. The agent scans only for the conditions needed to allow or disallow access and is then released from memory. Non-persistent or dissolvable agent
The process of an organization preserving and organizing data in anticipation of or in reaction to a pending legal action Legal hold
A host based software firewall installed on a host machine provides firewall services for just that machine . Firewalls that are application/context aware operate at layer 7 and user ___________________________ to filter based on application or service. Deep Packet Inspection (DPI)
List of requirements, Device/type requirements, Environment limitations, Equipment limitations, Compatability requirements, Wired/Wireless considerations, Security considerations Designing and Building a Network, CompTIA Exam Objective 1.12 - Seven categories to consider.
A network of (typically) far flung routers and servers that provide , via QoS and other tools, sufficient bandwidth for VTC. medianet
Old VTC standard that ran over 128kb ISDN. This protocol employed aggressive compression and delivered decent VTC systems all over the world. Not based on IP address and although still some in use they are hard to integrate. H.320
The underlying architecture that allows all QoS to work. Differentiated services (DiffServ)
The cornerstone of Differentiated services are two pieces that go into every IP header on every piece of data and make up the Differentiated Services Field: ___________ and _______________. DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point) and ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification)
Six bits before ECN, this portion of the IP packet uses the first 3 bits to make a total of 8 Classes of service. DSCP field
A two pit field in the IP header where QoS aware devices can place a "congestion encountered" signal to other QoS-aware devices. ECN (explicit congestion notification)
Define the following ECN codes: 00 01 10 11 00 - Not QoS aware 10 - aware, no congestion 01 - aware, no congestion 11 - QoS aware, congestion encountered
In a manufacturing environment, the overall system that monitors and controls machines is called. ICS (Industrial control system)
Three basic components of an ICS. input/output functions (I/O) on the machine, a controller, an interface for the operator
An ICS with smaller controllers placed directly on each machine that connect back to a centralized controller, called the ICS server where global changes can be made. DCS (Distributed control system)
System designed for large scale, distributed processes such as power grids, pipelines and railroads. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system
Controllers in a SCADA system, designed to have some autonomy in case it looses connectivity with the central control. Uses a long distance WAN to maintain communications. RTU (remote terminal unit)
In a distributed control system (DCS), what is the control or computer that operators interact with controllers through called? HMI (Human machine interface)
The first step of the troubleshooting process. Identify the problem. This includes gathering information, questioning users, duplicate problem (if possible), identify symptoms. determine if anything has changed on the network, and approach multiple problems individually.
The second step of the troubleshooting process Establish a theory of probable cause. This step comes down to experience and tools at your disposal. Don't forget to question the obvious and consider multiple approaches.
The third step of the troubleshooting process, after Establishing a theory of probable cause Test the theory to determine the cause. Do this step without making any changes. Your first theory may not be the problem, and you may have to reestablish a new theory or escalate the problem
The fourth step in the troubleshooting process after testing your theory to determine the cause. Establish a Plan of Actions and Identify Potential Effects. How are you going to fix the problem? Identify any possible effects.
The fifth step in the troubleshooting process after Establishing a Plan of Action and Identifying Potential Effects Implement the Solution or Escalate as Necessary. Try one likely solution at a time and document everything you do and what results you get.
The sixth step of the troubleshooting process after Implementing a Solution Verify full system functionality. Make sure the user(s) can do what they were trying to do before they called. ALso, at this time if applicable, implement preventative measures to avoid a repeat of the problem.
The last step in the troubleshooting process Document Findings, Actions and Outcomes
Command to ping a host using it's IPv6 address in Windows ping -6
Command to ping a host in Linux/UNIX using it's IPv6 address ping6
Command to trace route to a system using it's IPv6 address in Windows tracert -6
Windows command that combines the features of tracert and ping pathping
This command shows network statistics about a system including information such as listening ports and established connections. Available in every OS. netstat
netstat -a netstat -b netstat -e -a all connections and listening ports -b displays the executable involved in creating each connection -e displays Ethernet statistics
netstat -f netstat -n netstat -o -f displays FQDN for foreign addresses -n shows addresses and ports in numerical format -o shows the owning process ID (PID) associated with each connection
netstat -p netstat -r netstat -s -p shows the protocol statistics specified after the switch -r displays the routing table -s displays per protocol statistics
netstat -t netstat -t shows the current connection offload state entered without the brackets, repeats the command in the number of seconds specified until stopped.
Windows command that displays NetBIOS information such as the names that have been registered by the local system, viewing the names registered by a remote system and viewing the NetBIOS name cache. This Windows command has case sensitive switches** Nbtstat
nbtstat -n Displays NetBIOS names registered by the local system.
nbtstat -A nbtstat -a nbtstat -A lists a remote machine's name table given its NAME netstat -a lists a remote machine's name table given its IP address
nbtstat -c nbtstat-n nbtstat -c lists NBT's cache of remote machine names and their IP addresses nbtstat -n lists LOCAL NetBIOS names
nbtstat -R nbtstat -R purges and reloads the remote cache name table
This CLI utility provides an interface for diagnosing DNS problems. This command works on all OSes. nslookup
Utility found in all OSes, helps diagnose problems with IP to MAC resolution. arp
arp -a Displays any IP addresses that have been resolved to MAC addresses recently.
Remote servers accessible with a web browser that contain common collections of diagnostic tools such as ping and tracert, plus some BGP query tools. Looking glass sites
Hardware or software tool that monitors the different protocols running at different layers on the network. A good one will give you application, session, transport, network and data link layer information on every frame going through your network. Protocol analyzers
Device (hardware or software running on a laptop or mobile device) that looks for an documents all existing wireless networks in the area. Useful for diagnosing wireless network issues and conducting site surveys. Wi-Fi Analyzer
Relatively simple device used to check the integrity of telephone wiring. Use to check a twisted pair line to see if it is good, dead, reverse wired, or if there is AC voltage on the line. Line tester
A cable tester that will also report on characteristics such as speed and duplex settings. Certifier or Cable certifier
Cable tester that can tell you the length of a cable and where a break or short is located (if one exists) Time domain reflectometer (TDR) or Optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR)
WAP antenna: Omnidirectional Broadcasts out in all directions. Good for covering a room or area where you want blanket coverage.
WAP antenna: Unidirectional (Yagi) antenna. Concentrates the signal into a beam. Best for AP to AP connections.
WAP antenna: Patch Antenna that broadcasts out in a half sphere, in one direction. Almost always mounted on a wall.
WAP that you can access directly and configure singularly via its own interface is called a ______________________. Thick client
A WAP that can only be configured through a wireless controller Thin client
Protocol used by most WAP manufacturers to allow interoperability between APs and controllers of different manufacturers. Lightweight Access Point Protocol (LWAPP)
Network troubleshooting: Tool used to detect shorts/opens, continuity issues Cable tester
When a signal is sent down one wire pair in a UTP cable and a device on the sending end detects interference. Near end crosstalk (NEXT)
Sending signal down one twisted wire pair and detect interference on the opposite end of the cable. Far end crosstalk (FEXT)
When the signal in one wire pair (STP/UTP) is interfering with another pair. Split pair - can be diagnosed with many cable testers including TDRs
When one end is terminated as a 568A and the other end is accidentally terminated as a 568B TX/RX reversed. This creates a crossover cable
When your networks packets are so large that they must be fragmented to fit into your ISPs packets. MTU Mismatch
Method of determining the best MTU setting automatically, by sending multiple ICMP packets varying in size from larger to smaller with DF set and waiting until a response is received. Path MTU Discovery (PMTU) runs over ICMP
When a router has ICMP disabled and PMTU is unable to operate. MTU black hole
IEEE 802.3ad Vendor neutral protocol - Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) Cisco has it's own proprietary Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP)
Example of a NIC teaming misconfiguration Setting both sides of the link to passive mode when you want to use LACP.
Network Troubleshooting: If a newly configured firewall will not pass any traffic. Could be a misconfigured ACL. Check for permit any statement and make sure that no statements follow permit any because they will never be reached.
When a router learns of a route through a certain interface, it will not comminucate that route out the same interface. (RIP) Split Horizon
A document between a customer and a service provider that defines the scope, quality and terms of service to be provided. Service Level Agreement (SLA)
A document that defines an agreement between two parties in situations where a legal contract wouldn't be appropriate. Defines duties the parties commit to perform for each other and a time frame. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
Document that details the interoperability of a companies components. For example, two companies might agree that their GBICs will work in Cisco and Juniper switches. multi-source agreement (MSA)
In essence, a legal contract between a vendor and customer. Defines services and products the vendor agrees to supply and the time frames in which to supply them, Statement of work (SOW)
Ideal temperature and humidity for a server or equipment room. 68 degrees and less than 50%
In wireless terms, the actual number of useful bits per second is called__________________. goodput
If an 802.11b device joins an 802.11n traffic drops to ___________ speeds. 802.11b speeds
802.11n legacy mode sends out separate packets just for legacy devices
802.11n mixed mode or high throughput mode sends out special packets that support older standards yet also improve the speed of those standards via 802.11n's wider bandwidth
802.11n greenfield mode Wireless N only network, drops support for older protocols and gets the best goodput.
802.3af Power over ethernet
Original PoE supported ______ watts of DC power. 15.4
802.3at PoE+
PoE+ provides up to ________ watts of DC power. 25.5
802.11ac uses the ______ band only. 5 GHz
This can be used to break up the broadcast domains on very large wireless network using an extended service set. VLAN pooling
Cisco's software for monitoring it's routers and switches Cisco Network Assistant (CNA)
type of NAT where a single public IP address (routable) IP address maps to a single internal machine, enabling you to access that machine from outside the network. Static NAT (SNAT)
type of NAT implementation where many internal systems can share a pool of public, routable addresses. Dynamic NAT
Most commonly used NAT implementation where one public routable IP address is used for many internal hosts by using port numbers to map traffic to specific hosts on the internal network. Port address translation (PAT)
When BGP is used as an exterior gateway protocol it is referred to as __________. eBGP
When BGP is used as an interior gateway protocol it is referred to as __________. iBGP
Unlike Distance vector and Link state routing protocols, that only store the next hop for a destination, this routing protocol stores the entire path to the destination network and is classified as a path vector protocol. BGP
Created by: douros05