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CUT6 2.5

Computers: Understanding Tech 6e 2.5

TermDefinition
memory A semiconductor chip that contains a grid of transistors that can be on (1) or off (0) to store data, either temporarily or permanently.
read-only memory (ROM) A type of memory that stores data permanently, even when the computer is not powered on; individual bytes of ROM cannot be easily rewritten.
random-access memory (RAM) A type of memory that can be written and rewritten easily as the computer operates; the primary type of memory used in almost all desktop and notebook computers.
memory address The numeric address of a location in RAM.
dynamic RAM (DRAM) RAM that requires a constant supply of electricity to keep its contents intact; used as the main memory in most computers. Also called volatile RAM.
static RAM (SRAM) RAM that does not lose its data when the power goes off; faster than dynamic RAM (DRAM), but more expensive, so not used as the main memory in PCs; also called nonvolatile RAM.
dual inline memory module (DIMM) A type of mounting for RAM chips to be installed in a desktop motherboard; the word dual indicates that both sides of the circuit board contain memory chips.
synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM) RAM in which the speed is synchronized with the system clock.
single data rate (SDR) SDRAM SDRAM in which data moves into or out of RAM at the rate of one word per system clock cycle.
double data rate (DDR) SDRAM SDRAM in which data transfers twice as fast as with SDR SDRAM, because it is read or written at the rate of two words of per clock cycle.
memory access time The time required for the processor to access (read) data and instructions from memory.
erasable programmable ROM (EPROM) An obsolete type of ROM chip that could be erased with a strong flash of ultraviolet light and then reprogrammed; enabled reuse but required removing the chip from the computer and placing it in a special machine.
electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM) A type of ROM chip that can be electrically reprogrammed using only the hardware that comes with the computer; allows upgrading the computer’s BIOS without removing the BIOS chip from the motherboard.
flash memory A type of EEPROM that is easily rewritten in small blocks, so it can be used for rewriteable storage; commonly used on USB flash drives and solid-state hard drives.
nonvolatile RAM RAM that does not lose its data when the power goes off; faster than dynamic RAM (DRAM), but more expensive, so not used as the main memory in PCs; also called static RAM.
Created by: softcrylic