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4.3 - The economic situation in the USSR in the late-1920s

What had Lenin introduced in 1921? The NEP.
What did the NEP (introduced by Lenin in 1921) allow? Peasants to own their land and sell any surplus food. The system provided incentives for more food to be produced.
What did some of the peasants - the kulaks - become as a result of the NEP? Quite well off. Some of the kulaks employed other peasants to work on their land.
How did other peasants react to the more privileged position of the kulaks (after the introduction of the NEP)? They resented it.
What happened to food production in the 1920s? It increased.
Despite food production increasing in the 1920s, what was the case? There were fundamental problems that limited this growth.
What was the fundamental problem that limited the growth of food production in the 1920s? The peasants who owned their small plots of land were using mostly primitive methods of agriculture with little machinery and low yields.
As well as the peasants using mostly primitive methods to farm their small plots of land limiting growth of food production in the 1920s, what was another issue? There was very little industrial development considering the size of the country.
Due to its lack of industry, what was the USSR? Vulnerable to attack from Europe, as it had been in 1914 and in previous centuries.
What did the USSR urgently need to make it less vulnerable to attack from Europe? More industry to produce more weapons.
What would be needed if industry in Russia was increased and why? Much more food would have to be produced to feed the industrial workers if more people were to work in factories and live in cities. In addition, the USSR would need to buy machinery needed for industrialisation from abroad.
If industry in Russia was increased (which it needed to be to make it less vulnerable from attack), machinery would need to be bought from abroad. What was the only way to pay for this? Through the export of food.
As a result of the increased amount of food Stalin would need to feed industrial workers and export to pay for machinery in order to increase industry in the USSR, what did Stalin do and when? In 1929, he decided to abandon the NEP.
After Stalin decided to abandon the NEP in 1929, what did new policies mean? That the State took direct control of agriculture and industry.
What would the State taking direct control of agriculture and industry ensure? It would ensure higher levels of production and strengthen the position of the USSR so that it could withstand any invasion.
Created by: mollyyy
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