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an area that is lower than surrounding land areas; some are filled water basin
a part of a large body of water that extends into the land bay
a small, high, flat-topped landform with cliff-like sides butte
a deep, narrow valley with steep sides; often has a stream flowing through it canyon
a large waterfall or steep rapids cataract
a plain at the mouth of a river, often triangular in shape, formed when material is deposited by flowing water delta
a broad plain on either side of a river, formed when sediment settles during floods flood plain
a huge, slow-moving mass of snow and ice glacier
an area that rises above surrounding land and has a rounded top; lower and usually less steep than a mountain hill
an area of land completely surrounded by water island
a narrow strip of land that connects two larger areas of land isthmus
a high, flat-topped landform with cliff-like sides; larger than a butte mesa
a landform that rises steeply at least 2,000 feet above surrounding land; usually wide at the bottom and rising to a narrow peak or ridge mountain
a gap between mountains mountain pass
an area of land almost completely surrounded by water and connected to the mainland by an isthmus peninsula
a large area of flat or gently rolling land plain
a large, flat area that rises above the surrounding land; at least one side has a steep slope plateau
the point where a river enters a lake or sea river mouth
a narrow stretch of water that connects two larger bodies of water strait
a low stretch of land between mountains or hills; land that is drained by a river valley
a river or stream that flows into a larger river tributary
an opening in Earth's surface through which molten rock, ash, and gases from Earth's interior escape volcano
exact position on Earth in terms of longitude and latitude absolute location
the raising of plants and animals agriculture
high plateau in Peru and Bolivia Altiplano
height above sea level altitude
all the land drained by the Amazon River Amazon basin
study of humankind in all aspects, especially development and culture anthropology
channel that moves water over a long distance aqueduct
an underground layer where water collects aquifer
land that can be used for farming arable land
scientific study of ancient cultures through the examination of artifcats and other evidence archaeology
group of islands archipelago
very dry desert climates arid climate
object made by a human being artifact
process by which one group takes on the cultural traits of another assimilation
thick layer of gases or air atmosphere
a ring-shaped coral island enclosing a body of water atoll
imaginary line running through Earth between the North and South Poles axis
indigenous peoples of western North Africa Berbers
variety of different kinds of living things in a region or ecosystem biodiversity
number of live births per 1,000 people in a year birth rate
Dutch, French, and other European farmers in colonial South Africa Boers
situation when large numbers of educated people migrate out of a country brain drain
group of people traveling together caravan
a small, light ship developed by the Portuguese that performed well on long voyages caravel
north east south and west are examples of cardinal directions
the science of making maps and globes cartography
crop grown mostly for export cash crop
legal member of a country citizen
independent state consisting of a city and its surrounding territory city-state
culture with a written language in which people have many different kinds of jobs civilization
average weather of a place over many years climate
long-term significant change to a region's average weather climate change
control by a group , or collective, rather than an individual or single entity collectivization
policy by which one country seeks to rule other areas colonialism
movement of new settlers and their culture to an area colonialization
group of people living in a new territory with ties to a distant state colony
diagram of a compass showing direction compass rose
tree that produces cones to carry seeds coniferous trees
Spanish soldier-explorer conquistador
minority group in Egypt that practices Christianity Copts
a formation of rock-like material made up of the skeletons of tiny marine creatures coral reef
range of mountains that parallels another range cordillera
sphere of very hot metal at the center of the Earth core
Spanish person born in Spain's American colonies criollo
Religious wars in which Christian soldiers from Europe aimed to stop the spread of Islam and to retake control of Palestine, also called the Holy Land Crusades
thin layer of rocks and minerals that surrounds Earth's mantle crust
absorbing ideas or customs from other cultures cultural borrowing
spread of cultural traits from one culture to another cultural diffusion
beliefs, customs, practices and behavior of a particular nation or group of people culture
area in which a single culture of cultural trait is dominant culture region
number of deaths per 1,000 people in a year death rate
tree that loses its leaves in the fall deciduous
the loss of forest cover in a region that results from the trees in a forest being destroyed faster than they can grow back deforestation
unit that measures angles degree
scientist who studies human populations demographer
being sent back to one's home country deportation
process of depositing material eroded and carried by water, ice, or wind deposition
removal of salt from seawater desalination
the change when arable land dries out and becomes desert desertification
spread of people from one place to many others diaspora
territory that governs itself but is still tied to its original country dominion
low-lying mountains that separates European Russia from Asiatic Russia Ural Mountains
movement of people from rural to urban areas urbanization
the planning of a city urban planning
area with limited vegetation, such as moss and shrubs tundra
climate with cool summers and bitterly, cold, dry winters tundra climate
storm much like a hurricane typhoon
area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn tropics
location of a place relative to another place relative location
area with at least one unifying physical or human feature such as climate, landforms, population, or history region
storage pool of water reservoir
settlement in the country rural
a semiarid area that lies between the Sahara and moister regions to the south in the northern Africa Sahel
parklike landscape of grasslands with scattered trees that can survive dry spells, found in tropical areas with dry seasons Savanna
section of a map that shows how much distance on the map represents a given distance on the land scale bar
map that shows natural features physical map
mix of human and nonhuman features at a given location place
Created by: Mr_Morman