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Unit 6 Chapter 26

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Nontuberculosis Mycobacteria

QuestionAnswer
Mycobacterium tuberculosis obligate pathogenic bacterial species in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis; the etiologic agent of tuberculosis in humans. Humans are the only reservoir for the bacterium.
Mycobacterium bovis slow-growing aerobic bacterium; etiologic agent of TB in cows and rarely in humans; both cows and humans can serve as reservoirs; humans can also be infected by the consumption of unpasteurized milk.
slow growing species of Mycobacterium that are photochromogens Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium asiaticum, and Mycobacterium simiae. Mycobacterium szulgai is a photochromogen when grown at 24 degrees
slow growing species of Mycobacterium that are scotochromogens Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium xenopi (ypung cultures may be nonchromogenic . Mycobacterium szulgai is a scotochromogen when grown at 37 degrees
rapid growing species of Mycobacterium Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae,
Mycobacterium leprae also known as Hansen’s bacillus spirilly, mostly found in warm tropical countries, is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes leprosy. It is an intracellular, pleomorphic, acid-fast, pathogenic bacterium
Middlebrook mediums serum albumin-based clear agar media used to support the growth of mycobacteria.
Tween 80 test useful in identifying Mycobacterium kansasii (which can produce positive results within 3-6 hours); to differentiate two scotochromogens with similar appearing colonies, A positive = the liquid, not the cells, light orange to pink or red.
Iron Uptake test distinguses M. chelonae which is negative from rapid growers; used to detect thse mycobacteria capable of converting ferric ammonium citrate to iron oxide
Arylsulfatase test The rate by which arylsulfatase enzyme breaks down phenolphthalein disulfate into phenolphthalein and other salts; used to identify potentially pathogenic rapid growers; Slow growing are positive in the 14 day arylsulfatase test.
Pyrazinamidase test Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an anti-tuberculosis drug M. bovis; used to differentiate between the species, but susceptibility testing becomes complicated, works best at a low pH in vitro; prevents growth of some mycobacteria.
Tellurite test the ability of mycobacterial species to reduce tellurite in 3 to 4 days is used to distinguish members of M. avium complex from most other non-chromogenic species. All rapid growers reduce tellurite in 3 days.
Urease test negative: orange/yellow; positive: bright pink; diamide of carbonic acid, hydrolyzed with release of ammonia & carbon dioxide; ammonia combines w/carbon dioxide & water to form ammonium carbonate; turns medium alkaline, phenol red- orange/yellow-pink
NAP test a precursor in the synthesis of chloramphenicol; selectively inhibits the M. tuberculosis complex.
T2H distinguishes M. bovis from M. tuberculosis; M. bovis is susceptible to lower concentrations of T2H than MTB,; variability in inhibition exists, depending on the concentration of the inhibitory agent and the temperature of incubation
Created by: luceroapril