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# Physical Science

anything that has mass and takes up space matter
the amount of matter in an object mass
the amount of space an object occupies. cubic centimeters or cubic meters, which we write as cm3 or m3. The formula to calculate it is: Length x Width x Height volume
the basic building blocks of matter atoms
Atoms are also called _____________________________ particles
a force caused by gravity pulling on atoms [measured in units of Newtons (N) or pounds (lbs)] weight
We measure mass in units of grams or kilograms
Matter has two characteristics: ? it has mass and takes up space.
is the act of pushing a fluid aside to make room for matter displacement
Light and heat are forms of _____________, not states of matter energy
Almost everything in the universe is _____________, but this state does not exist very much on Earth. Lightning strikes, as well as certain lightbulbs, do contain some plasma
tiny pieces of matter that make up an object particles
The particles are tightly packed, lined up in rows, and vibrate in place. These particles have very little energy. Have a definite size and a definite shape Solid
These particles are spread apart, are randomly spaced, flow past one another, have more energy than solids but less energy than gases. liquids
They take the shape of their container and have a definite size and volume. They do not compress and expand (except in cases of extreme temperature change) liquids
the most unorganized of the three main states of matter gas
spaced very far apart, move randomly, freely, and very fast, have the highest energy level, do not have a definite shape: this makes them different from solids, do not have a definite size: this makes them different from liquids gas
4th state of matter plasma
Their particles are very far apart, freely and rapidly, enormously high energy levels, electrically charged (this separates them from all other states of matter) plasma
99% of the entire universe is made up of it. The northern lights and lightning are two examples of it plasma
when solid particles gain enough energy to slide past each other and become liquid particles. A phase change, caused by heat, from solid to liquid melting
the process of changing from one state of matter to another phase change
form of energy that refers to particle motion heat
a phase change from liquid to gas. vaporization
Occurs when the liquid particles gain so much energy that they fly off the surface of the liquid and become gaseous, takes place when rain puddles “disappear” on a sunny day and when wet clothes dry on a clothesline vaporization
___________________ and vaporization are the same process. Another way to cause vaporization is by heating a liquid, like when water boils on a stove top Evaporation
when heat is taken away from an object, and the particles slow down and get locked in place. The process of a liquid losing energy and becoming a solid freezing
a phase change from a gas to a liquid. takes place when the particles of a gas lose energy, stop flying around, and begin to simply flow around each other condensation
phase change directly from solid to gas. A solid gain enough energy to directly become a gas (it skips the liquid phase). Common examples: include dry ice, ice cubes in a freezer that disappear, and shrinking glaciers sublimation
A theory that states that particles of matter are always in motion, and that the amount of motion depends on the amount of energy in the particles Kinetic Theory Model
A characteristic that can be observed without changing the substance. Ex: color, shape, size, texture, state of matter, mass, weight, viscosity physical property
a measurement of how tightly packed particles in a substance are. The amount of matter in a given volume. Mass/volume. Density D=M/V
liquid’s tendency to resist flowing. increases as heat decreases viscosity
Thick, sticky liquids that flow slowly have _________ ____________, like peanut butter, honey and molasses high viscosity
Thin, runny liquids that flow quickly are ________ ____________, like water low viscosity
All _________ have various levels of luster, ductility, malleability, and conductivity. metals
How shiny or dull a metal is luster
How easy or hard it is to pull a metal into a wire ductility
How easy or hard it is to press a metal into a sheet malleability
How a metal allows energy to flow through it conductivity
_______________ release H+ in water, taste sour, are corrosive, and conduct electricity. Acids Examples include sulfuric acid, vinegar, apples, tomatoes, and battery acid.
H+ A hydrogen ion
OH- A hydroxide ion
An atom that is charged ion
___________ release OH- in water, taste bitter, feel slippery, are corrosive, and conduct electricity. Examples include soap, baking soda, ammonia, bleach, and antacids. Bases
Scientists use the __ __________ to measure the acidity of a substance pH scale
pH levels less than 7 are ___________ acidic
pure water has a pH level near __ 7
Scientists test the acidity of water using _____________ ___________, which changes color based on the acidity of the substance litmus paper
pH levels greater than 7 are ___________ basic
a chart that organizes all the known elements Periodic Table
Simplest form of matter that cannot be broken down. Can be bonded together to make other substances. Make up everything in the entire universe. Different objects are made up of different combinations of these elements Element
the smallest particle of an element atom
comes from a Greek word meaning ‘uncuttable’ atom
The center of an atom is a _____________, which contains protons and neutrons. nucleus
We find these inside the nucleus neutrons and protons
Protons have a _____________ charge positive
Neutron have ________charge no
Pieces of matter that revolve around an atom’s nucleus electrons
Electrons have a ____________ charge negative
Electrons move along paths called energy levels or energy shells
Electrons move along paths called energy levels or energy shells electron clouds
Electrons are relatively far away from the nucleus; most of an atom is empty space
the number of protons in each atom. atomic number
The Periodic Table is organized in order of increasing atomic number
the number of neutrons and protons in an atom. atomic mass
Scientists measure atomic mass in Atomic Mass Units (amu)
the smallest part of a substance that is still that substance. Combinations of different atoms result in _________ molecules
When atoms bond to become ____________, the atoms lose their old properties but gain new properties molecules
elements that have been bonded together. made of molecules compounds Ex: sugar, table salt, and baking powder
When elements bond to make ___________________, they give up their old properties in exchange for new properties compounds
A change that does not alter the molecules of a substance. Does not change the composition of the substance. No new substance is made physical change EX: cutting, tearing, folding, painting, melting, freezing, mixing, and evaporating
when two or more substances combine without making a new substance mixture
______________________ mixtures have easily recognizable parts, are not evenly mixed, and are easy to separate (such as a bag of candies) Heterogeneous
______________________ mixtures don’t have recognizable parts, are evenly mixed, and hard to separate (such as milk) Homogeneous
mixture where one substance dissolves evenly into another solution Examples include sugar or salt in water, coffee, and air.
the substance that dissolves solute
the substance in which the solute dissolves solvent
matter that does not dissolve in a solvent insoluble
___________ is called the ‘universal solvent’ because most items that dissolve will dissolve in it Water
impact the chemical composition of a substance. change that changes the composition of a substance. a new substance has been made Chemical changes EX: rusting, cooking, baking, rotting, digestion, and burning
Color, odor, bubbles, and heat are all indicators that a ___________ _____________ has taken place. chemical change
Cannot be created or destroyed. It only changes forms. Law of Conservation of Mass
cannot be created or destroyed. It only changes forms. Pure substance Ex: Gold, Hydrogen, pure water molecules
substance that is made of more than one component Non-pure substance Ex: All mixtures & All solutions
Everything that we know exists is either matter or _____________. It is the ability to cause change energy
Stored energy. Increasing the pull of gravity will increase this. Potential Energy Ex: A bow and arrow, An uneaten apple, The top of a roller coaster, A ball sitting at the top of a hill
energy due to motion. The faster an object moves, the more ___________ ____________ it has Kinetic Energy (A slow-moving or fast-moving vehicle. A ball rolling down a hill)
the energy of motion, such as a moving vehicle mechanical energy
energy vibrations that travel in waves sound energy
waves with electric and magnetic properties, such as light electromagnetic energy
total kinetic energy in moving particles, like in boiling water thermal energy
energy stored in chemical bonds, like in plants chemical energy
energy stored in the nuclei of atoms nuclear energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It only changes forms. Law of Conservation of Energy
During energy transformations, there is always energy lost, often in the form of ___________ heat
measures the movement of particles in an object. flow of energy caused by temperature differences heat
Heat flows from ___________ to __________ until equilibrium (equal temperature) is reached warm; cool
the lowest possible temperature, where particles stop vibrating completely absolute zero
heat transfer by contact. Heat transfer by direct physical contact. When you pick up a snowball, heat from your hands melts the snow conduction Ex: Hot coffee warms the coffee cup, which warms your hands. A hot stove burner warms a pan, which cooks the food inside.
Heat transfer in fluids (gasses or liquids) due to warmer fluids rising and cooler fluids sinking. Ex: When water currents heat, rise, cool, and sink. A similar phenomenon takes place inside the earth, stars, and lava lamps convection
heat transfer that travels through space. It is the third type of heat transfer. takes place in outer space or in vacuums (where there are no particles) radiation
Heat felt while sitting beside a campfire is ____________ heat. The Sun is also a source of this type of heat. radiant
a substance that allows energy to flow through easily conductors Ex: brass, gold, and other metals
a substance that does not allow energy to flow through easily insulators Ex: feathers, housing insulation, wood, cloth, plastic, rubber, glass, paper, and air
If you increase heat, particles move faster and farther apart, which causes an object to ___________ expand
An object’s volume increases as heat increases. thermal expansion
An object’s volume decreases as heat decreases thermal contraction
a force of attraction or repulsion. Opposite charges attract; like charges repel. (North-South poles attract; north-north repel) magnetism
Anything affected by _________ is magnetic: iron, cobalt, and nickel iron
Opposite charges attract; like charges repel. Law of Attraction
groups of atoms whose magnetic poles are aligned domain
invisible area around a magnet where the magnetic force acts field
The _________________________________acts as a shield around the earth from dangerous radiation from the sun magnetosphere
Magnetic materials have magnetically-aligned ____________. In magnetic materials, the ________ have north and south poles lined up domains
the build-up or flow of electrons. electricity
the build-up of electrons static electricity Ex: Lightning
the flow of electrons. usually flows through a metal wire current electricity
In electricity, opposite charges attract; like charges repel. Law of Electric Charges
a closed loop of wire that electric current runs through circuit
In a(n) ______________ circuit, electrons do not flow, the switch is off, and the circuit has an opening open
In a _________________ circuit, electrons are able to flow, the switch is on, and the circuit is complete closed
a device that safely opens and closes the circuit switch
the object that provides the flowing electrons source
a circuit that has one path for electrons to flow. A circuit that has exactly one path for electrons to flow through. Ex: string of Christmas lights series circuit
a circuit that has more than one path for electrons to flow. there is more than one path for the electrons to flow. parallel circuit
The tendency of material to oppose the flow of electrons. affected by length, diameter, material, and temperature resistance
resistance materials are long, insulators, hot, and have very thin diameters. Results in light, such as in light bulbs High
resistance occurs when electrons do not flow very well. High Resistance
occurs in materials that allow electrons to flow very easily. affected by 4 factors: length, diameter, material, and temperature. materials are short, conductors such as copper or gold, cool, and have large diameters Low Resistance
a disturbance that transfers energy wave
There are two types of waves: mechanical and electromagnetic
material through which energy can travel medium
These waves require a medium because they need particles in order to transfer energy mechanical waves Ex: earthquakes, ocean waves, and sound
Waves that do not require a medium. travel fastest in vacuums electromagnetic waves Ex: light, radio waves, and gamma rays
the distance between two neighboring waves wavelength
the distance from the top of the wave to the resting position amplitude
the number of complete waves passing a specific point in a given time frequency
the distance a wave travels in one unit of time speed
Waves can be categorized as either transverse or longitudinal
move perpendicular (at right angles) to the direction of the wave transverse wave (ex: light)
the top of a transverse wave crest
the bottom of a transverse wave trough
Waves that move particles in the same direction as the wave is travelling longitudinal wave (ex: sound)
an area of a longitudinal wave where particles are squeezed together compression
an area of a longitudinal wave where particles are pulled apart rarefaction
___________________ waves are similar to stretched springs Longitudinal
Tighter compressions and larger rarefactions mean greater __________________ in longitudinal waves amplitudes
Sound waves are _________________________ waves, so they need a medium to travel through mechanical
Sound waves are ___________________________ waves, so they consist of rarefactions and compressions longitudinal
Sound waves travel fastest through _____________ and slowest through ________________ solids; gases
can be absorbed by insulators or reflected Sound Waves
how high or low a sound is. The higher the frequency, the higher the __________. pitch
________________________ increases as speed increases Frequency
the intensity of a sound wave. dependent in the amplitude of the sound wave loudness (higher amplitude = louder. low amplitude = quiet)
a transverse wave with electric and magnetic properties. electromagnetic energy
a chart showing the entire range of electromagnetic frequencies electromagnetic spectrum
These EM waves travel slowly and have low frequencies. Include radio waves, microwaves, and infrared. Long-term exposure to any of these waves can lead to cancer Low electromagnetic energy
includes X-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet rays. These waves move fast, have high frequencies, and short wavelengths High electromagnetic energy (High EMFs)
uses include tanning, sterilization, and vitamin D ultraviolet
uses include airport security and medical imaging x-rays
uses include cancer and tumor treatment gamma rays
used for cell phones, radar, and cooking microwaves
used for remote controls and thermal imaging cameras infrared
Everything we see is light _________________ off of objects reflected
the only part of the EM spectrum that humans can see visible light
___________surfaces reflect no light, while _____________ surfaces reflect all light Black; white
In order of decreasing wavelengths, the order of colors is Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet (Acronym: ROY G. BIV. The colors of a rainbow)
objects that produce their own light. include the sun, a campfire, and certain animals luminous objects
objects that reflect or absorb light. include planets, the moon, and most matter on earth illuminated objects
the angle of incidence = the angle of reflection Law of Reflection
light that bounces off a surface and back to the eye reflection
light bounces off a smooth surface, forms a clear image, and the light rays are reflected at the same angle that they were received regular reflection
light bounces off a rough surface, forms a distorted image, and the light is scattered diffused reflection
materials that block all light and cast a shadow. Ex: wood, plastic or metal opaque
materials that allow some light to pass through Ex: colored or milky liquid translucent
materials that allow all light to pass through Ex: clean glass or air transparent
describes how light acts when it moves from one material to another. light slowing down when it travels through different mediums, causing an object to appear distorted refraction Ex: pencil sitting in a glass of water
a number that describes how much light speeds up or slows down while traveling in different materials index of refraction
Visible light travels in a _____________ line straight
When light intersects with an object, the light either _____________ or _______________ reflects; refracts
curved, transparent materials that refract light lenses
a lens that diverges (spreads apart) light. Used in telescopes, cameras, and eyeglasses concave lenses
a lens that curves outward at the center. They are the shape of your eyeballs. convex lenses
When light enters a convex lens, it converges at a ___________ __________ on the other side focal point
the point where light converges on the far side of a convex lens focal point
push or a pull on an object. Measured in Newtons. always act in pairs: there is an action and a reaction. Can change the motion and shape of objects. Cannot be seen/touched. They are not matter. Force Force = Mass X Acceleration
Examples of ___________ include magnetism, gravity, and friction forces
He explained what forces are around 350 years ago Sir Isaac Newton
the forces are equal on an object and the motion of the object does not change balanced forces
forces are not equal and the net force is not equal to zero. They are forces that cause a change in motion or shape of an object. unbalanced forces.
a force that opposes the motion of an object. 4 types: static, fluid, rolling, and sliding. It produces heat. It can slow motion and wear objects down. friction
friction that acts on objects not in motion static friction
friction that acts on objects immersed in a fluid fluid friction
when an object rolls across a surface on rollers, wheels, or ball bearings rolling friction
when an object slides across a smooth or slick surface sliding friction
the force that pulls all objects towards each other. a force that pulls all objects in the universe together gravity
tends to pull all objects towards the center of all the mass. makes objects feel heavy or light gravity
The gravity between two objects depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them Law of Universal Gravitation
Higher masses have higher __________________ and lower masses have lower _________________ gravities
Larger distances have lower________________, and shorter distances have higher _________________ gravities
upward force acting on an object in a fluid that is more dense. a force exerted on floating objects. buoyancy Ex: hot-air balloons, icebergs, hippopotamuses, and people swimming
A force that causes an object to move in a circle. impacts things that rotate or spin. always pulls an object towards the center centripetal force
The farther from the center, the stronger the force. Examples include spinning dancers and merry-go-rounds centripetal force
Tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. An object in motion will stay in motion/ An object at rest will stay at rest ____________ depends on mass inertia
Objects with more mass have more ____________, and objects with less mass have less_____________. An object only gains or loses motion when it interacts with a force from something else inertia
the perfect balance of inertia (forward motion) and gravity (downward motion). orbit
Forward motion and downward gravity balance out, causing the objects to ___________ around the planet. This is how satellites ________ earth orbit
Objects speed by a planet with a lot of momentum
_______________ attracts the objects to the planet and the planet to the objects Gravity
If there is too much _____________, the object will fall towards the center gravity
If there is too much ________________, the object will fly off into space inertia
a fixed place used to determine a change in motion reference point
a change in position over time motion
a repetitive back and forth motion vibrational motion
motion in a straight line (this is hard to see on earth due to gravity and friction) straight line motion
motion in a circular path rotary motion
motion that travels horizontally and vertically projecticle motion
distance over time speed Speed = distance / time (units: mph, km/hr, m/s)
speed in a given direction velocity
speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction acceleration
an object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will remain in motion until acted upon by an unbalanced force Newton's 1st Law of Motion
Force = Mass x Acceleration. describes how force and acceleration relate to one another. If you increase mass, you must increase force to have the same resulting acceleration Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
a force acting in a specific direction action
for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. forces always come in pairs. Ex: A space shuttle pushes against the burning fuel, and the burning fuel pushes back against the shuttle Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
a force acting in the opposite direction reaction
area over which a force is exerted distance
when an object moves a distance due to a specific force (measured in units of newton-meters) Force x Distance. Force and distance must be in the same direction. Work Work = Force X Distance
___________ is always done on an object Work
a device that can make work easier machine
a device made of two or more simple machines compound machine
six simple machines are ? lever, inclined plane, wedge, wheel and axle, screw, and pulley
a bar that pivots around a central point (fulcrum), such as a stapler or pair of plyers lever
a flat surface that slopes, such as blades of a fan or the surface of a bathtub inclined plane
Two inclined planes put back to back, the bottom of a nail wedge
inclined plane wrapped around a post, such as a spiral staircase screw
Two circles that orbit about an axis, such as a steering wheel wheel and axle
a grooved wheel with a cable wrapped around it pulley
Measures how much help a machine provides. number of times a machine multiplies the effort force. Machines make work easier by changing the force, distance, or direction BUT they do not change the total amount of work done mechanical advantage
also called effort force, the force put into a machine input force
the force the machine exerts on an object output force
the force that opposes effort resistance force
______________ make work easier by changing the force, distance, or direction BUT do not change the amount of work being done Machines
measures how productive a machine is. the ratio of work input and work output. higher the percent, the higher this is efficiency (expressed as a percent)
amount of work done by a machine work output
amount of work put into a machine work input
Things from the world that we use resources
resources from the environment and used by humans natural resource
sources we will eventually use up, such as oil and gas non-renewable resources
sources that replenish themselves, such as water and sunshine renewable resources
energy from ancient plants and animals such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Disadvantages include pollution, non-renewable resources, and environmental damage fossil fuel energy
must be burned to release potential chemical energy Burning coal causes water to evaporate, and the rising steam turns a turbine that turns a generator that creates electrical energy fossil fuel energy
transforms energy from the sun into electrical energy. transforms energy from the sun into electrical energy. free, renewable energy, no pollution solar energy
energy harnesses the energy of moving water. hydro energy
When hydro dams are made, the lake above the dam holds _____________________ energy potential
When the sluice gates are open, the water rushes underneath the dam and turns turbines, which runs a generator, which generates ____________________________ electricity
converting energy from wind directly into electricity by rotating a turbine. This energy harnesses kinetic energy from moving air. Wind Energy
involves harnessing energy from animal and plant byproducts. Biomass Ex: fuel from wood, organic trash, alcohol fuels, fermentation, crops, and landfill gas such as methane
energy harnesses heat escaping from the earth. geothermal energy
a fluid is run through underground pipes, and the temperature difference is used to generate __________________ ________________ geothermal energy
harnesses energy from hydrogen atoms. hydrogen energy we combine hydrogen with oxygen to form water, and the energy that is released is transformed into energy • Water is a byproduct of hydrogen energy
Created by: Mr_Morman
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