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Unit 3 Chapter 32

Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

normal flora of the nasopharyngeal/oropharngeal Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, other viridans sptreptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, non group A β-hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pyogenes, nonhemolytic streptococci, Veillonella spp., Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium app.
primary pathogens of the respiratory tract Streptococcus pneumoniae, group A β-hemolytic streptococci, Neisseria meningitis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Bordetella pertussis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium kansasii, Legionella pneumophila, toxin-producing Corynebacterium diptheriae, Mycoplas
pharyngitis and causative agents Children: Streptococcus pyogenes; Adults: viruses
sinusitis and causative agents most common: rhinovirus, Parainfluenza virus; less common: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilis influenzae
epiglottitis and causative agents most common: Stre[tococci, Staphylococci, H. influenzae type B; less common: H parainfluenzae
pertussis and causative agents most common: Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis; less common: Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella holmesii
bronchitis/bronchiolitis and causative agents most common: respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza; less common:Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis
influenza and causative agents influenza A or B virus based off surface antigens
acute pneumonia and causative agents RSV, influenza types A and B, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus
nosocomal pneumonia and causative agents gran-negative bacilli, Stphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila
aspiration pneumonia and causative agents mixed aerobes and sometimes anaerobes
empyema and causative agents community acquired: S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, S. pyogenes, S. anginosus, anaerobes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; health care-associated: gram-negative bacilli, anaerobes
tuberculosis and causative agents Mycobacteria
other chronic pneumonias and causative agents Mycobasterium tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp., Zygomycetes, Pneumocytis jirovecii
common respiratory pathogens in HIV infections Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenae, Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocytis immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Aspergillus spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, influenza, Cytomegalovirus
Bioterrorism/repiratory infections anthrax, pneumonic plague, and tularemia
Common pathogens of lower respiratory infections by age neonates: Chlamydia trachonatis; infants: RSV, influenza virus; 5-18mo: S. pneumoniae, H, influenzae; 3mo-19yr: viruses, S. aureus, M. pneumoniae; 18-45: M. pneumoniae; older adults: S. pneumoniae, Legionalla spp.;
Created by: luceroapril