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Unit 3 Chapter 18

Haemophilus and Other Fastidious Gram-Negative Bacilli

Haemophilus *colony morphology* pleomorphic, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic
Haemophilus *gram stain results* gram-negative cocobacilli or rods
Haemophilus *testing results* ferment-carbohydrates, generally oxidase- and catalase-positive, reduce nitrates to nitirtes
Haemophilus *epidemiology* obligate parasites on the mucous membranes of humans and animals, nonpathogenic or produce opportunistic infections
Haemophilus influenza *colony morphology* small, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic
Haemophilus influenza *gram stain results* gram-negative rod
Haemophilus influenza *testing results* indole, urease, and ornithine secarboxylase
Haemophilus influenza *virulence factors* capsule, IgA, adherance by fimbriae, and other structures, outer membrane proteins
Haemophilus influenza *epidemiology* nasopharynx, upper respiratory tract
Haemophilus influenza *infections* meningitis, epiglottitis, bacterial tracheitis
Define X factor growth factor that some Haemophhilus spp. require in media for growth; also known as hemin or hematin
Define V factor growth factor that some Haemophhilus spp. require in media for growth; also known as nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD)
Porphyrin test *principle* contains hemoglobin as a source of hemin (X factor), supplement which provides NAD (V factor), vitamins, amino acids, coenzymes, dextrose, and other nutrients provides an accurate means of determining X factor
Porphyrin test *reagents* Casein Peptone, Delta-aminolevulinic Acid, Monopotassium Phosphate, Hemoglobin Solution, Dipotassium Phosphate, Sodium Chloride, Glucose, L-Glutamine, Hydrochloride,
Porphyrin test *results reporting* Positive Test - orange red fluorescence Negative Test - no fluorescence
HACEK group and list of members Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (formerly Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella sp,
Aggregatibacter aphrophilus *colony morphology* star shaped centers of colonies
Aggregatibacter aphrophilus *gram stain results* gram-negative bacilli
Aggregatibacter aphrophilus *testing results* catalase-positive oxidase variable do not grow on MAC negative for X and V growthfactors, urease, indole, esculin, and citrate
Aggregatibacter aphrophilus *virulence factors* collagenase and a leukotoxin
Aggregatibacter aphrophilus *epidemiology* dental plaque and gingival scrapings
Aggregatibacter aphrophilus *infections* endocarditis
Cardiobacterium hominis *colony morphology* form rosettes, swelling, long filaments, or sticklike structures
Cardiobacterium hominis *gram stain results* gram-negative bacilli some false gram-positive
Cardiobacterium hominis *testing results* oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, and indole-positve. negative for urase, nitrate, gelatin, esculin
Cardiobacterium hominis *epidemiology* attachment to heart valves usually damaged or prosthetic, normal biota of the oral cavity and nose
Cardiobacterium hominis *infections* endocarditis, infect aortic valve.
Eikenella corrodens *colony morphology* nonhemolytic on SBA, slight gree effect secondaryto growth, nonmotile
Eikenella corrodens *gram stain results* gram-negative coccobacilli
Eikenella corrodens *testing results* oxidase-positive, catalase-negative
Eikenella corrodens *virulence factors* resistant to clindamycin and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins
Eikenella corrodens *epidemiology* attachment to heart valves usually damaged or prosthetic, normal biota of the oral and bowel cavity
Eikenella corrodens *infections* endocarditis, periodontitis, meningitis, empyema, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, arthritis, and postoperative tissue infections
Kingella *colony morphology* nonmotile, large white β-hemolytic colonies on SBA, smooth, convex
Kingella *gram stain results* gram-negative bacilli
Kingella *testing results* oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, negative for urease, indole, esculin, gelatin and citrate
Kingella *epidemiology* attachment to heart valves usually damaged or prosthetic, normal biota of the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract
Kingella *infections* endocarditis, degenerative joint and bone infections
Capnocytophaga *colony morphology* faculatatively anaerobic, thin often fusiform, spindle shapedgliding motility on solid surfaces, nonhemolytic
Capnocytophaga *gram stain results* gram-negative bacilli
Capnocytophaga *testing results* ferment sucrose, glucose, maltose, and lactose, negative for most biochemical reactions, may reduce nitrates and hydrolyze esculin
Capnocytophaga *virulence factors* resistant to aminoglycosides
Capnocytophaga *epidemiology* normal inhabitant of oral cavity
Capnocytophaga *infections* periodontis and endocarditis
Pasteurella *colony morphology* nonmotile, facultative, anaerobic, ovoid, filamentous
Pasteurella *gram stain results* gram-negative cocbacilli
Pasteurella *testing results* catalase and oxidae positive ferment glucose with weak to moderate acid production without gas.
Pasteurella *virulence factors* capnophilic
Pasteurella *epidemiology* infected animals
Pasteurella *infections* septicemia, arthritis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, meningitis
Brucella *colony morphology* aerobic, nonmotile,
Brucella *gram stain results* gram-negative coccobacilli or bacilli
Brucella *testing results* oxidase and catalase positive urease positive within 2 hoursgrow on SBA amd CHOC agar isolated and modified on Thayer-Martin or Martin-Lewis
Brucella *virulence factors* unencapsulated
Brucella *epidemiology* zoonotic disease found throughput the world
Brucella *infections* acute, subchronic, and chronic
Francisella *colony morphology* small, nonmotile, non-spore-forming, aerobic, gray-white, raised smooth appearance
Francisella *gram stain results* gram-negative bacilli or coccoid
Francisella *testing results* oxidase, urease, and satellite or X and V test negative and weakly positive for catalase and β-lactamase activity
Francisella *epidemiology* zoonotic disease through ingestion, inhalation, arthropod bite, or contact with infected tissue
Francisella *infections* ularemia infections, ulceroglandula, pneumonia
infections caused by Legionella Legionnaires disease, pontiac fever
Bordetella *colony morphology* areobic
Bordetella *gram stain results* gram-negative bacilli or coccobacilli
Bordetella *testing results* do not ferment carbohydrates, oxidize amino acids, relatively inactive in biochemical tests, produce catalase
Bordetella *virulence factors* filamentous hemagglutinin and pertacin, pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, tracheal cytotoxin
Bordetella *epidemiology* respiratory tract
Bordetella *infections* classic pertussis
Bordetella pertussis *colony morphology* small, nonmotile, obligately aerobic
Bordetella pertussis *gram stain results* gram-negative coccobacilli
Bordetella pertussis *testing results* oxidase-positive, urease-negative, nitrate-negative,
Bordetella pertussis *virulence factors* filamentous hemagglutinin and pertacin, pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, tracheal cytotoxin
Bordetella pertussis *epidemiology* human disease no animal reservoir or vector
Bordetella pertussis *infections* classic pertussis "whooping cough"
Created by: luceroapril
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