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YGK Middle Ages

YGK Peoples of the Middle Ages

In the late fourth century, they entered central Europe from the steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. The Huns
The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus wrote that they inflicted “tremendous slaughter” on Germanic and Roman enemies alike. The Huns
Historians disagree on what, if any, components of the their advance should be identified with the Xiongnu, a confederation of Central Asian nomads that fought against Han China before being dispersed in the third century. The Huns
Their great leader, Attila, known as the “scourge of God,” was defeated at the Catalaunian Fields (near Chalons in what is now northern France) by an alliance of Romans and Visigoths. The Huns
After Attila’s death in 453, a rebellion of Germanic subject peoples broke up their empire. The Huns
One of a number of Germanic peoples scattered by the advance of the Huns. They took refuge south of the Danube under the protection of the Roman Empire. The Visigoths
When that “protection” was revealed to consist of abuse, fraud, and starvation, they rebelled and caused disorder in Rome’s Balkan provinces. The Visigoths
When the emperor Valens sent in the army to restore order, they were led by Fritigern shattered the Roman army at Adrianople (378), where Valens was killed. The Visigoths
For the next forty years, groups of them wandered the Roman world searching for a place to settle. In 410 led by Alaric they sacked Rome itself. The Visigoths
Christians among the Visigoths, like those among their Ostrogothic and Vandalic neighbors, subscribed to the heretical “Arian” beliefs, which caused conflict with their Roman subjects until their kings converted at a 589 church council. The Visigoths
Driven out of southern Gaul by the hostile Franks, the Visigoths retained control over most of what is now Spain until their king Roderic was killed by Islamic invaders from North Africa in 711. The Visigoths
By the middle of the fifth century, they had settled in southern Gaul (kingdom of Toulouse) & the Iberian peninsula. The Visigoths
When the Visigoths fled into the Roman empire, they were one of numerous Germanic peoples subjected to the Huns north of the Danube. They threw off Hunnic domination after the death of Attila. The Ostrogoths
After the last Roman emperor of the west, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed in 476, they took advantage of the chaos to occupy Italy and establish their own kingdom. The Ostrogoths
Their king Theodoric, known as “the Great,” ruled from 493 to 526 and tried to restore peace to Italy. The philosopher Boethius worked as an official at Theodoric’s court. The Ostrogoths
Their kingdom collapsed in the 6th century after the Byzantine generals Belisarius and Narses fought a series of destructive wars for control of the Italian peninsula. The Ostrogoths
One of several peoples who crossed the frozen Rhine River into Roman Gaul on New Years’ Eve, 406. From Gaul they moved into Spain and across the Strait of Gibraltar to attack Roman Africa. The Vandals
. By 439 they had occupied Carthage, gaining control of the grain trade and possession of a substantial navy. This they used to embark on a second career as Mediterranean pirates. The Vandals
Their sack of Rome in 455 under King Gaiseric was reputedly much more destructive than the Visigothic one 45 years earlier. Their ravages so dismayed Roman observers that “vandalism” still indicates senselessly destructive behavior. The Vandals
Like the Ostrogoths, they were targets of the Byzantine emperor Justinian’s attempted reconquest of the western Mediterranean; Justinian’s general Belisarius smashed their army at Tricamerum in December 533. The Vandals
Moved into northern Italy (the region still known today as “Lombardy”) after the peninsula had been devastated by the war between the Byzantines and the Ostrogoths. The Lombards
Their dukes and kings shared control of Italy with the remaining Byzantine garrisons. Although they were Catholics, their relationship with the papacy was often turbulent. The Lombards
Papal requests for assistance led to the 8th century invasion by Frankish forces under Charlemagne, who crushed this kingdom and seized the their “iron crown.” The Lombards
Their historian, Paul the Deacon, retired to the abbey of Monte Cassino to write a chronicle of his now-vanquished people. The Lombards
Settled in Gaul late in the 5th century, displacing the Roman official Syagrius. Clovis, the first great ruler of their Merovingian dynasty, converted to (Catholic) Christianity in 496. The Franks
The close association between themand the papacy benefited both parties in an age when their mutual enemies (such as the Visigoths) were either heretics or still pagan. The Franks
Merovingian Gaul was wracked by civil war among this group's contending kings; by the beginning of the 8th century the Merovingians had lost effective power to their chief ministers, the “mayors of the palace.” The Franks
In 751 mayor Pepin the Short, with permission from the pope, deposed the last Merovingian and established a new Carolingian dynasty of these kings. The Franks
Pepin’s son was Charlemagne, who subjugated much of western Europe and presided over a revival of learning known as the “Carolingian Renaissance.” The Franks
On Christmas Day 800 Charlemagne was crowned emperor in Rome. Charlemagne’s grandsons quarreled over rights to his inheritance, splitting this empire into a cluster of regional domains. The Franks
The westernmost (“West Francia”) became the kingdom of France; the eastern one beyond the Rhine (“East Francia”) retained the imperial title as the Holy Roman Empire. The Franks
the early medieval inhabitants of northern Britain, were known for their raids on the Roman frontier fortification of Hadrian’s Wall. The Picts
Their name (from the Latin pictus, “painted”) may refer to their use of colorful tattoos. The Picts
Their art is notable for elaborate stone carvings of mysterious beasts. Starting in the 9th century, their kingdoms were absorbed by the neighboring kingdom of the Scots. The Picts
conventional designation for a group of Germanic peoples who migrated from northwestern Europe (the North Sea coast of Germany and mainland Denmark) to Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries. The Anglo-Saxons
Their settlers conquered or displaced the Roman and British inhabitants of the island (semilegendary King Arthur is portrayed as a British ruler fighting against Saxon expansion). The Anglo-Saxons
By the early 7th century, seven kingdoms across southern and eastern Britain were known collectively as the Heptarchy (a group of seven rulers). Christian missionaries arrived from Italy and Ireland to convert the pagans. The Anglo-Saxons
Cultural products of the newly Christian kingdoms included illuminated manuscripts; the writings of the monastic historian the Venerable Bede, and the epic poem Beowulf. The Anglo-Saxons
Their kingdoms were hard-hit by the Viking raids of the 9th century; only Wessex, the southwesternmost kingdom, survived and repelled the Scandinavian raiders. The Anglo-Saxons
The kings of Wessex then unified their territories as a single kingdom of England. The Anglo-Saxons
like the Huns, were a nomadic people of central Asia. Their language is Ugric, related to Finnish and a number of west Siberian languages. The Magyars
They occupied the Danube basin shortly before 900. They exploited the decline of the Carolingian empire to carry out raids on East Francia and on Italy. The Magyars
The 955 Battle of Lechfeld, won by Germany’s Otto the Great, halted their expansion into central Europe. At the end of the 10th century, their grand prince was baptized with the name Stephen and crowned the first king of Hungary. The Magyars
Seaborne raiders from Scandinavia who used longships to attack coastal regions of western Europe between the late 8th and 11th centuries. The Vikings
Although they are best known for pillaging English and Irish monasteries, they also settled and traded on waterways all over northern and eastern Europe, founding cities in Russia and making voyages to Iceland, Greenland, and the New World. The Vikings
They seized part of northern France from Charlemagne’s heirs established the duchy of Normandy. The Vikings
During the 11th century, they fought as mercenaries and built castles in Sicily, southern Italy, France, and Britain. The Normans
Their Duke William earned the epithet “the Conqueror” for his victory over the Anglo-Saxons at the 1066 Battle of Hastings. The Normans
Created by: Mr_Morman