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# YGK Mathematicians

Question | Answer |
---|---|

The work of this man in pure math includes generalizing the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, doing the first rigorous manipulation with power series, and creating this namesake method for the finding roots. | Isaac Newton (1643-1727, English) "Newton's Method" |

Best known for a lengthy feud between British/Continental mathematicians over whether he or Gottfried Leibniz invented calculus (whose differential aspect this man called the method of fluxions). It is generally accepted that they both did, independently. | Isaac Newton (1643-1727, English) |

principally known for the Elements, a textbook on geometry and number theory, that was used for over 2,000 years and which grounds essentially all of what is taught in modern high school geometry classes. | Euclid (c. 300 BC, Alexandrian Greek) |

He is known for his five postulates that define his namesake (i.e., "normal") space, especially the fifth (the "parallel postulate") which can be broken to create spherical and hyperbolic geometries. He also proved the infinitude of prime numbers. | Euclid (c. 300 BC, Alexandrian Greek) "Euclidean space" |

Considered the "Prince of Mathematicians" for his extraordinary contributions to every major branch of mathematics. His Disquisitiones Arithmeticae systematized number theory and stated the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. | Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855, German) |

He also proved the fundamental theorem of algebra, the law of quadratic reciprocity, and the prime number theorem. | Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855, German) |

He may be most famous for the (possibly apocryphal) story of intuiting the formula for the summation of an arithmetic series when given the busywork task of adding the first 100 positive integers by his primary school teacher. | Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855, German) |

best known for his "Eureka moment" of using density considerations to determine the purity of a gold crown; nonetheless, he was the preeminent mathematician of ancient Greece. | Archimedes (287-212 BC, Syracusan Greek) |

He found the ratios between the surface areas and volumes of a sphere and a circumscribed cylinder, accurately estimated pi, and presaged the summation of infinite series with his "method of exhaustion." | Archimedes (287-212 BC, Syracusan Greek) |

Legend has that he was killed by a Roman soldier who was disrupting his circles in the sand. | Archimedes (287-212 BC, Syracusan Greek) |

known for his independent invention of calculus and the ensuing priority dispute with Isaac Newton. | Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716, German) |

Most modern calculus notation, including the integral sign and the use of d to indicate a differential, originated with him. | Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716, German) |

He also invented binary numbers and did fundamental work in establishing boolean algebra and symbolic logic. | Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716, German) |

Remembered for his contributions to number theory including his "little theorem" that ap - a will be divisible by p if p is prime. | Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665, French) |

He also studied his namesake primes (those of the form 22n+1) and stated his "Last Theorem" that xn + yn = zn has no solutions if x, y, and z are positive integers and n is a positive integer greater than 2. | Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665, French) |

known for his prolific output and the fact that he continued to produce seminal results even after going blind. | Leonhard Euler (1707-1783, Swiss) |

He invented graph theory with the Seven Bridges of Königsberg problem and introduced the modern notation for e, the square root of -1 (i), and trigonometric functions. | Leonhard Euler (1707-1783, Swiss) |

Richard Feynman called his proof that eiπ = -1 "the most beautiful equation in mathematics" because it linked four of math's most important constants. | Leonhard Euler (1707-1783, Swiss) |

Logician best known for his two incompleteness theorems proving that every formal system that was powerful enough to express ordinary arithmetic must necessarily contain statements that were true, but which could not be proved within the system itself. | Kurt Gödel (1906-1978, Austrian) |

Best known for proving the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture that all rational semi-stable elliptic curves are modular. This would normally be too abstruse to occur frequently in quiz bowl, but a corollary of that result established Fermat's Last Theorem. | Andrew Wiles (1953-present, British) |

Known for extending the notion of complex numbers to four dimensions by inventing the quaternions, a non-commutative field with six square roots of -1: ±i, ±j, and ±k with the property that ij = k, jk = i, and ki = j. | William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865, Irish) |

Created by:
Mr_Morman