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YGK Plants

You Gotta Know These Plant Distinctions

QuestionAnswer
Seedless plants are divided into ______________________ (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) and pterophytes (ferns, club mosses, quillworts, and horsetails). bryophytes
Both of bryophytes and pterophytes, like all other plants, reproduce by producing sperm and eggs on a structure called the _________________________________ gametophyte.
Seedless plants are divided into bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) and ______________________ (ferns, club mosses, quillworts, and horsetails). pterophytes
Moss belongs to bryophytes
Liverworts belongs to bryophytes
Hornworts belongs to bryophytes
Ferns belong to pterophytes
Club mosses belong to pterophytes
Quillworts belong to pterophytes
Horsetails belong to pterophytes
The gametes fuse to form another structure called the _____________________________ , which produces spores that disperse and grow into new gametophytes. sporophyte
Both of these seedless plant groups produce flagellated sperm that require water for fertilization. Bryophytes and Pterophytes
Small enough that water and nutrients can diffuse to all parts of the plant without any specialized vascular tissue. They lack true leaves and roots, instead fastening themselves to the ground with rhizoids. bryophytes
Unlike other land plants, bryophytes have a prominent gametophyte stage that is usually _____________, meaning that an individual plant produces only one type of gamete (either sperm or egg). dioicous
Bryophtyes lack true leaves and roots, instead fastening themselves to the ground with __________________ Rhizoids
The short-lived ______________________ grows from the female gametophyte. sporophyte
The more complex ____________________ can grow taller thanks to vascular tissues that provide structural support and transport water and other materials throughout the plant. pterophytes
Many of them do have true leaves and roots. ___________________ have a prominent sporophyte stage that grows from a small, short-lived gametophyte. Pterophytes
Pterophyte gametophytes may be dioicous or ____________________ producing both sperm and egg on the same plant. monoicous,
Seed-producing plants can be divided into _____________________________ (cycads, ginkgos, conifers, and gnetophytes) and angiosperms (phylum Anthophyta, or flowering plants). gymnosperms
Seed-producing plants can be divided into gymnosperms (cycads, ginkgos, conifers, and gnetophytes) and ________________________ (phylum Anthophyta, or flowering plants). angiosperms
Cycads are examples of gymnosperms
Ginkgos are examples of gymnosperms
Conifers are examples of gymosperms
Gnetophytes are examples of gymonsperms
phylum Anthophyta, or flowering plants are examples of angiosperms
Most ______________________________________________ produce male gametophytes that grow into the female, allowing fertilization to take place in relatively dry conditions. angiosperms and gymnosperms
Many ______________________________ also exhibit secondary growth of woody tissues, allowing them to grow even taller than the pterophytes. angiosperms and gymnosperms
The word ________________________means “naked seed,” referring to the fact that their gametophytes develop on the surface of leaves or on the scales of cones. gymnosperms
In contrast, ______________________means “receptacle seed.” Their gametophytes develop enclosed within flowers. angiosperms
Most (but not all) angiosperms fall into one of two classes based on the number of ________________________, or embryonic seed-leaves, in the plant embryo. cotyledons
________________________________________, have one cotyledon,;embryonic seed-leaves Monocots, or Monocotyledonae, have one cotyledon, while dicots, or Dicotyledonae, have two. While there are no other hard-and-fast distinguishing characteristics between the two groups, plants in each category tend to share other characteristics:
____________________________have two cotyledon; embryonic seed-leaves Dicots, or Dicotyledonae
______________________ produce pollen grains that have a single furrow (monosulcate); flower parts in multiples of three; numerous, fibrous roots; parallel leaf veins; and stems with scattered vascular bundles. Monocots
_______________, on the other hand, tend to have pollen with three furrows (tricolpate); flower parts in multiples of four or greater; taproot systems; stems with rings of vascular tissue; and branching leaf veins. Dicots
They also lack secondary growth, remaining herbaceous throughout their lives Monocots
Many of them exhibit secondary growth that produces wood. Dicots
Name for a single furrow pollen. Found in monocots monosulcate
Name for pollen with three furrows. Found in Dicots tricolplate
____________ transports water and soluble nutrients from the roots to the leaves. Xylem
_______________, on the other hand, carries nutrients like sucrose from their origin of synthesis or absorption to all parts of the plant. Phloem
2 types of vascular tissue in plants. Xylem and Phloem
Both xylem and phoelm tissues originate in the __________________ of the apical meristems of both the stems and roots. procambium
In woody plants, secondary vascular tissues arise in the __________________ ____________________ vascular cambium.
Xylem contains distinct elongated cells called ___________________ that have lignified cell walls and help provide structural support. tracheids
Xylem contains distinct elongated cells called tracheids that have ________________ cell walls and help provide structural support. lignified
Vessel elements in Xylem are also reinforced by lignin, but they are open at each end at _________________________ _____________________ and connect to form long tubes for water transport. perforation plates
_________________ functions via transpirational pull and osmosis. Xylem
Cell types in __________________ include companion cells, fibers, and sclereids. In trees, it is usually the innermost layer of the bark. phloem
Cell types in phloem include companion cells, fibers, and ________________ sclereids
The ___________________ is composed of sepals, specialized green leaves that protect the flower as a bud and provide support for the fully bloomed flower calyx
The calyx is composed of ________________, specialized green leaves that protect the flower as a bud and provide support for the fully bloomed flower sepals
The stem supporting a flower is called the ________________. peduncle
If multiple flowers bloom from a peduncle, the stems supporting each flower are called ____________________. pedicels
The _______________ is the swelling at the top of the pedicel or peduncle, just below the calyx. torus
________________ are specialized leaves, often brightly colored to attract pollinating species. Collectively, they are called a corolla. Petals
Petals are specialized leaves, often brightly colored to attract pollinating species. Collectively, they are called a _________________ corolla
The pollen-producing reproductive organ of the flower is called the ________________. stamen
The stamen consists of a thin filament topped by an anther, which actually contains the _____________ pollen
The stamen consists of a thin filament topped by an ______________, which actually contains the pollen. anther
The ______________, or female reproductive organ of the flower, is composed of leaf-like carpels. pistil
The ___________-containing ovules are at the base of the pistil, while a tube called a style topped by a sticky, pollen-receptive stigma rises from the ovary. There may be one or many pistils in each flower. ovary
The ovary-containing ovules are at the base of the pistil, while a tube called a ________________ topped by a sticky, pollen-receptive stigma rises from the ovary. There may be one or many pistils in each flower. style
The ovary-containing ovules are at the base of the pistil, while a tube called a style topped by a sticky, pollen-receptive _____________________ rises from the ovary. There may be one or many pistils in each flower. stigma
Created by: Mr_Morman