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YGK Mexican Leaders

One of the last rulers of the Aztec empire. In 1519 he allowed armed forces led by the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés to enter the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán. Several months later, the Spanish imprisoned him within his own palace. Montezuma II
Conquistador Pedro de Alvarado took advantage of Montezuma II's captivity to massacre peaceful celebrants at a religious festival, the Aztecs selected a new ruler named _____________, & the city erupted into conflicts that led to Montezuma’s death. Cuitláhuac
The Spanish then fled during an escape that is called the _____________ ____________ or “Sad Night” because many conquistadors died while crossing the causeways that connected the island city of Tenochtitlán to the shores of Lake Texcoco. “Noche Triste,”
By 1521, the ravages of ______________and the help of indigenous Tlaxcalan allies allowed Cortés to conquer Tenochtitlán and to capture Cuauhtémoc, the final Aztec emperor. smallpox
The conquistador who took advantage of Montezuma II's captivity and massacred peaceful celebrants at a religious festival Pedro de Alvarado
By 1521, the ravages of smallpox and the help of indigenous Tlaxcalan allies allowed Cortés to conquer Tenochtitlán and to capture ___________________________, the final Aztec emperor. Cuauhtémoc
Capital city of the Aztec Empire Tenochtitlan
Indigenous allies of Hernan Cortes who fought against the Aztecs Tlaxcalan
The Spanish conquistador who led the takeover of the Aztecs Hernan Cortes
Lake on which Tenochtitlan was built on Lake Texcoco
a parish priest who became the leader of Mexico’s first independence movement. Miguel Hidalgo
In response, Hidalgo called his congregation together and issued a call for revolt known as the _____________ __ ____________________ or “Cry of Dolores” on September 16, 1810 Grito de Dolores
In 1811, this independence leader was captured and executed by the colonial regime Miguel Hidalgo
The leadership of the independence movement then fell to another priest named _____________________________________who was himself executed in 1815 José María Morelos,
Although Hidalgo’s movement was unsuccessful, _________________________________is still celebrated as Mexico’s official Day of Independence. September 16th
A royalist general who changed his allegiances to become the first ruler of independent Mexico. Agustín de Iturbide
people of European descent born in the Americas Creoles
Early in 1821 Iturbide released the___________________________, which is also known as the Plan of 3 Guarantees or “Plan Trigarante” because it called for Mexican independence, a wholly Catholic state, and the equality of all races. Plan of Iguala
Three things that were called for in the Plan of Iguala Mexican independence, a wholly Catholic state, and the equality of all races.
Agustin de Iturbide reached out to this insurgent leader ____________________ _______________, and agreed to endorse legal racial equality in exchange for his military support. Vicente Guerrero
Agustin Iturbide’s Army of the Three Guarantees soon forced ___________ ________________, the last viceroy of New Spain, to acknowledge Mexican independence in the Treaty of Córdoba. Juan O’Donoju
Name of Agustin Iturbide's Army Army of the Three Guarantees
Treaty that officially granted Mexico their independence from Spain Treaty of Cordoba
In 1822 Agustin Iturbide became the first ________________ of Mexico, but a revolt led by Antonio López de Santa Anna forced Iturbide into exile in 1823. When Iturbide returned to Mexico in 1824, he was quickly executed. Emperor
Leader of the revolt against the first Mexican Emperor Agustin Iturbide in 1823 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
General who served as president of Mexico 11 different times between 1833 and 1855. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
After gaining independence, many Latin American nations fell under the rule of _______________, or charismatic leaders who exercised both military and political power. caudillos
As a caudillos, Santa Anna cultivated an image of himself as a savior of the Mexican nation, and even held an elaborate funeral for the leg that he lost during a conflict with France known as the “Pastry War.”
However, Santa Anna proved unable to prevent the loss of Mexico’s northern territories.
Despite routing the defenders of the Alamo, Santa Anna was defeated by the forces of Sam Houston at the 1836 ________________ ___ _________________, and was forced to recognize Texan independence. Battle of San Jacinto
American general who defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto and became the 1st president of Texas Sam Houston
Santa Anna seized control of the government during the Mexican-American War, only to lose major battles at __________ ___________ and Chapultepec, and be forced into exile. Cerro Gordo
This caudillo returned again to Mexico in 1853 and tried to establish a permanent dictatorship, but was challenged by the Liberal Plan of Ayutla, and was driven from power in 1855. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Santa Anna seized control of the government during the Mexican-American War, only to lose major battles at Cerro Gordo and ______________________ and be forced into exile. Chapultepec
A Liberal lawyer who became the first indigenous president of Mexico, and who led the opposition to the French-backed empire of Maximilian von Habsburg Benito Juarez
France’s emperor _______________ ____then used Mexico’s foreign debts to as a pretense for an invasion known as the “French Intervention,” which briefly imposed the Austrian archduke Maximilian as Mexico’s second emperor. Napoleon III (Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte)
Born to a Zapotec family in the state of Oaxaca, Juárez became a key figure in the Liberal movement that deposed Santa Anna, and which initiated legal and social changes known as La Reforma (“the Reform”) Benito Juarez
Name for the legal and social changes brought on by Benito Juarez La Reforma
Conservative backlash against the Liberal government of Benito Juarez soon led to the ____________________, which lasted from 1857-1861, and left the victorious Liberals with little money in the national treasury. This lead to France's invasion. War of the Reform
As the elected president of Mexico, Juárez evaded capture by French and imperial troops while rallying __________________ forces. Republican
After the departure of the French, Liberal troops captured and executed the Austrian Archduke Maximilian on the ___________ __ ___ ______________in the city of Querétaro. Hill of the Bells
Hill of the Bells, the sight of Maximilian's execution is located in the city of Queretaro
a Liberal general who established a long-lasting dictatorship that eventually led to the Mexican Revolution Porfirio Diaz
In 1876 Díaz issued the ________ _ _______________ and seized power from the Liberal president Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada. Plan of Tuxtepec
In 1876 Díaz issued the Plan of Tuxtepec and seized power from the Liberal president _______________________ Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada.
He dominated Mexican politics for the next 35 years, and served as president continuously between 1884 -1911 despite his earlier use of the slogan “Effective Suffrage and No Re-Election.” Porfirio Diaz
While in office, this man skillfully manipulated federal, state, and local politics, suppressed dissent, tamed the fractious Mexican army, opened Mexico to foreign investment, and oversaw the beginnings of the country’s industrial development. Porfirio Diaz
His supporters praised him as a brilliant statesman who ended the upheavals of the mid-19th century; his detractors stressed the inequality, corruption, & systematic brutality of the political & economic systems fostered by his advisors, as Científicos Porfirio Diaz
The name of positivist advisors of Porfirio Diaz who help usher in brutality Cientificos
The Anti-Reelectionist forces of _________________ _____________ revolted against Porfirio Diaz in 1910 and won their first victories in 1911, sparking uprisings elsewhere in the country. Francisco Madero
Porfirio Díaz promptly resigned under terms stipulated in the ______________________________ , and spent the last years of his life in comfortable European exile. Treaty of Ciudad Juárez
Led the 1910 revolution against Porfirio Díaz, and served as president of Mexico from 1911 to 1913 Francisco Madero
Madero wrote a book titled___________________________________________, which argued that it was time for Díaz to be replaced, and which revived Díaz’s former slogan of “Effective Suffrage and No Re-Election.” The Presidential Succession in 1910
He ran for president, but was arrested before the election. After escaping from prison, he issued the Plan of San Luis Potosí, which called for a general revolt in November 1910. Francisco Madero
Dissatisfaction with the Díaz regime coalesced around this man, who unseated the dictator & took power after democratic elections in 1911. However, he was unable to satisfy the far-reaching demands of the diverse coalition that had brought him to power. Francisco Madero
Disliked by the American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson and by former supporters of the Díaz regime, General Victoriano Huerta led a coup against this man. Francisco Madero
After a period of fighting within Mexico City that is known as the _____________________________________________ Madero was forced to resign. Huerta became president, and Madero was murdered a few days later. Decena Trágica or Tragic Ten Days
“First Chief” of the Constitutionalist army during the Mexican Revolution, and president of Mexico from 1917 to 1920. Venustiano Carranza
After the death of Madero, he issued the Plan of Guadalupe, and became the head of opposition to Huerta’s regime. His movement was supported by the generals Pablo González, álvaro Obregón, and Pancho Villa Venustiano Carranza
This general sought to obtain supplies by carrying out a 1916 raid on Columbus, New Mexico. In response to this incursion, the U.S. sent a “punitive expedition” led by General John J. Pershing to (unsuccessfully) pursue him across northern Mexico. Pancho Villa
The Missouri-born general who led the punitive expedition to capture Pancho Villa. He leader became the head general of the American Expeditionary Forces in WWI. John J. Pershing
a revolutionary general who served as president from 1934 to 1940, and who worked to fulfill the Constitution of 1917’s promises of land reform and nationalization of key resources Lázaro Cárdenas
Created by: Mr_Morman