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YGK UK Reforms

YGK British Reform Movements

This late 14th century group agitated for the reform of Western Christianity and was given the derogatory name ___________________ “Lollards”
The Lollards followed the example of _______________ __________________, a theologian whose criticism of the Church got him fired from his position at the University of Oxford in 1381. John Wycliffe
John Wycliffe is best known today for being one of the first to translate the Bible into _______________ (the first of his translations came out in 1382 and circulated widely) English
John Wycliffe & the Lollards also challenged the privileged status of the ________. clergy
Wycliffe and the Lollards called for a ____ clergy, lay
Wycliffe and the Lollards called for an end to ______________ _______________. clerical celibacy
Wycliffe and the Lollards wanted the end of _________________ to priests. confession
Wycliffe and the Lollards wanted a ban on priests holding ________________ _________________ temporal offices
The Lollards were driven underground, especially after the suppression of a 1414 uprising by ____ __________ ____________, but their ideas presaged many of those later adopted during the English Reformation. Sir John Oldcastle
In the wake of Oldcastle’s Rebellion, Wycliffe was posthumously declared a heretic at the 1415 ____________ ____ ______________, after which his corpse was exhumed and posthumously beheaded. Council of Constance
English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who tried to push the English Reformation further by “purifying” the Church of England of any remaining Roman Catholic influences Puritans
The word “______________” is applied inconsistently to groups espousing a variety of different religious positions; today, it often refers to somebody who is opposed to seeking pleasure. Puritan
Puritans who wanted to break away from the Church of England Separatist Puritans
Puritans who wanted to reform the church while remaining members of it. Non-separatist Puritans
The Pilgrims who sailed on the Mayflower were ________________ ; separatist puritans
The main group of colonists who founded the ________________________________ _____ _______________ under John Winthrop were non-separatists. Massachusetts Bay Colony
Founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony John Withrop
After the English Civil War, under the leadership of _______________ ___________________, Puritans enjoyed a brief period of power in England, during which time they closed theaters, limited sports, and instituted harsh penalties for breaking the Sabbath. Oliver Cromwell
John Wycliffe and the Lollards inspired ____ _____, a Czech religious reformer who was burned at the stake after he was also condemned at the Council of Constance Jan Hus
roups of separatist and non-separatist Puritans were the first British colonists in _______ ____________. New England
Politicians & soldiers during the English Civil War who wanted to extend suffrage & establish equality before the law were known as _________________ Levellers (a pejorative term probably referring to the fact that they wanted all people to live on a common level)
Some radicals during the English Civil War, inspired by the Book of Acts, went even further in attempting to establish egalitarianism in the countryside by trying to farm on common land. Because they dug up this land, they became known as _______________ Diggers (the Diggers preferred to call themselves the “True Levellers”)
The Diggers were inspired by this book of the Bible Book of Acts
The ___________________, who were less radical than the Diggers, had considerably more influence on English politics. Levellers
Several Leveller leaders were invited to debate the main leaders of the _____ _________ _______ during the 1647 Putney Debates about the formation of a new English constitution. New Modern Army
In the end, both the Levellers and the Diggers were suppressed by _____________ __________________ and Henry Ireton. Oliver Cromwell
In the end, both the Levellers and the Diggers were suppressed by Oliver Cromwell and _____________ __________________ Henry Ireton
The 1647 Putney Debates were about the formation of a new English __________________ constitution
The most vocal opponents of textile mechanization and the Industrial Revolution were known as ________________, Luddites
Luddites derived from the surname of a youth named ____ ______ who broke two stocking frames in 177 Ned Ludd
Between 1811 and 1813, organized groups of Luddites clashed with the British military at mills in _____________________________________________________________ Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire
In response to the Luddites, Parliament passed the________________________________ , which made industrial sabotage a capital crime Frame Breaking Act
While the Luddites were suppressed relatively quickly, the perpetrators of the _______________ _______in Kent in 1830 employed similar tactics by demolishing threshing machines to protest the mechanization of agriculture. Swiss Riot
Today, the term “Luddite” refers more generally to anybody who is uncomfortable with ______________________ technology
The ________________ movement advocated the adoption of the People’s Charter of 1838 Chartist
This called for instituting universal suffrage, secret ballots, the abolition of property qualifications to stand for election, salaries for members of Parliament, constituencies of equal size, and annual parliamentary elections. The People's Charter of 1838
The Chartist movement inspired several mass rallies, peaking in size in ____________ as the rest of Europe was swept up in revolution 1848
The Chartist movement did not directly inspire any political reforms, but Parliament gradually granted _______ of the six demands of the Charter (the demand for annual elections was the only one never implemented). 5
The ____________ ___________ were a series of laws that imposed tariffs on imported grain (“corn” was at that time a generic term for types of grain that require grinding, including wheat), which kept grain prices high to benefit English landowners. Corn Laws
From 1838 to 1846, the leading organization agitating for repeal of the Corn Laws was the Anti-Corn Law League.
The founders of the Anti-Corn Law League, _____________ ___________ and _________________, argued that importing grain would lower food prices for workers and thus stimulate the British economy. Richard Cobden, John Bright
The Corn Laws were eventually repealed in 1846 under the leadership of Conservative Prime Minister __________________ ________, a decision hastened by the start of the Irish Potato Famine the previous year. Robert Peel
The Corn Laws were repealed due to the start of the _________________ __________________ _________________________ Irish Potato Famine (1845)
Another legacy of opposition to the Corn Laws was the founding of the weekly publication ____ __________________________ in 1843 to promote repeal of trade restrictions. The Economist
The repeal of the Corn Laws ushered in an era of support for____________ _________________ that continues to this day. free trade
A variety of organizations, including the _______________ __________________, sprung up in 1865 to promote universal suffrage in the United Kingdom. Reform League
Universal suffrage had been one of the demands of the______________________ ___________________________, but Parliament had not enacted it. Chartist Movement
The Reform League staged mass meetings to influence parliamentary proceedings, including a rally in Hyde Park in 1866 that forced the resignation of _________________ ___________________ as Home Secretary Spencer Walpole
The Reform League staged mass meetings to influence parliamentary proceedings, including a rally in ___________ ___________ in 1866 that forced the resignation of Spencer Walpole as Home Secretary Hyde Park
The Reform League’s platform was eventually in 1867, during _____________________________’s prime ministry. Benjamin Disraeli
The _____________________________________ of 1867 enfranchised urban working-class males in England and Wales (further bills enfranchised Scotland and Ireland the following year). Second Reform Act
One of the most influential intellectual communities in British history was the _______________ _________________, an organization founded in 1884 to promote the gradual adoption of socialism Fabian Society
This society got its' name from the Roman general _____________ ______________, who avoided fighting pitched battles against Hannibal and instead won a gradual war of attrition. Fabius Maximus
he Fabian Society pressed for progressive economic measures that went far beyond the platform of the Liberal Party, including a minimum wage and universal health care
This writer of Pygmalion was a prominent member of the Fabian Society George Bernard Shaw
This science fiction writer of War of the Worlds, The Time Machine, Island of Dr. Moreau and The Invisible Man was a prominent member of the Fabian Society H.G. Wells
This author of Mrs. Dalloway, To The Lighthouse, A Room of One's Own and Orlando was a prominent member of the Fabian Society Virginia Woolf
The first Labour Party Prime Minister of the UK was a member of the Fabian Society Ramsay MacDonald
This sociologist coined the term "collective bargaining". She was among the founders of the London School of Economics and played a crucial role in forming the Fabian Society. Beatrice Webb
This 1st Baron Passfield helped form the Fabian Society with wife Beatrice. He later wrote the Original Clause IV for the British Labour Party Sidney Webb
In 1900, many members of the Fabian Society founded the ______________________ _____________, a socialist rival to the two major parties, which eventually came to power in 1924 under Ramsay MacDonald. Labour Party
Today, the _________________ ___________________ continues to exist as a left-wing think tank. Fabian Society
The most militant advocates for women’s suffrage became known as Suffragettes
This term is especially associated with ________________________ ________________________and her organization, the Women’s Social and Political Union. Emmeline Pankhurst
Name of Emmeline Pankhurt's suffragette organization The Women’s Social and Political Union
In the 1910s, many Suffragettes adopted militant tactics to draw attention to their cause, including ______________ _______________’s protest at the Epsom Derby in 1913 when she was trampled and killed by the King’s horse. Emily Davison
This suffragette vandalized Diego Velasquez's painting, Rokeby Venus in 1914 Mary Richardson
The 1914 bombing of the _____________________ ______________ inside Westminster Abbey occurred during the Suffragette movement Coronation Chari
Many Suffragettes who were arrested went on hunger strikes, leading the government of _____________ __________________to pass the Cat and Mouse Act, which allowed hunger strikers to be released and subsequently re-arrested. Herbert Asquith
This act allowed hunger strikers to be released and subsequently re-arrested. Cat and Mouse Act
In 1918, Parliament finally extended voting rights to women over the age of thirty who met property qualifications.
One conflict that deserves particular attention is the strike led by the ____________________________________________________________ in 1984 and 1985 under the leadership of Arthur Scargill. National Union of Mineworkers
Leader of the National Union of Mineworkers in the 1980s Arthur Scargil
The entire British coal industry had been nationalized by _____________________ _________________’s Labour government in 1947. Clement Atlee
In 1984, the conservative ________________________ government announced a plan to close 20 coal mining pits as a way of reducing government subsidies to the mines, which precipitated a strike. Margaret Thatcher
The British coal industry was privatized in ____________ 1994
Today, most of Britain’s coal is imported, and the former mining areas have some of the highest ___________________ ____________________in the country. unemployment rates
Many Luddite and Chartist leaders were punished with “transportation” to ________________________ Australia
Gold miners rebelling at Australia’s ___________________ _______________ in 1854 even drew up a list of demands inspired directly by the English Chartist movement Eureka Stockade
The free trade ideals espoused by the opponents of the Corn Laws influenced many economists in the _________________ ________________ and other economically developed countries who continue to advocate free trade United States
Most notably, ____________ _______________, the US leader of the National Women’s Party and the author of the Equal Rights Amendment, joined several WSPU protests while living in Birmingham. Alice Paul
Created by: Mr_Morman