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Grammar

QuestionAnswer
Form of verb that functions as a noun. (running, walking, reading, etc.) Ex. Reading is fun. Gerund
Form of verb that functions as an adjective with present tense meaning. (Technically an active participle for all verbs.) (running, walking, reading, etc.) Ex. A running man moves fast. Present Participle
Form of verb that functions as an adjective with past tense meaning. (Technically a passive participle for most verbs.) Intransitive verbs generally have an active past participle instead. (spilled, done, eaten, etc.) Ex. Spilled milk is not edible. Past Participle
Verbs that can take a direct object. Ex. I read the book. He ate the pizza. Transitive
Verbs that can not take a direct object. Ex. I went to the library. He stayed at home. Intransitive
The "to" form of the verb. (to go, to eat, to read, etc.) These function as a noun in a sentence. Ex. To read is fun. It means that this form has no information attached to it such as who? what tense?, etc. Infinitive
All forms that have no information attached to them such as who? what tense?, etc. These include infinitives, gerunds, etc. non-finite forms
This is whoever is performing the action. John is the subject in: "John reads a book everyday." Subject
This is what or whom after the verb. This is what or whom is directly affected by the action. This is often referred to as the "victim". Book is the direct object in: "John reads a book everyday." Direct Object
To/for what or to/for whom. This is what or whom is indirectly affected by the action. This is often referred to as the "recipient", and can be translated as a phrase with "to" or "for". Chris is the indirect object in: "John gave Chris a book." Indirect Object
Indicates action in progress, although in English, this use is far from strictly observed. It equals the verb 'to be' in the present + a present participle (-ing form). Ex. I am reading. He is eating. Present Progressive Tense
Indicates action in progress at a time in the past, although in English, this use is far from strictly observed. It equals the verb 'to be' in the past + a present participle (-ing form). Ex. I was reading. He was eating. Past Progressive Tense
Indicates an action completed in the past. It is formed with the present tense of 'to have' + a past participle (often an -ed form). Ex. I have read. He has eaten. We have baked it. Present Perfect Tense (Also Pluperfect)
Indicates an action completed in the past before another past action (past of the past). It is formed with the past tense of 'to have' + a past participle (often an -ed form). Ex. I had read. He had eaten. We had baked it. Past Perfect Tense
Indicates an action that will be completed in the future. It is formed with the present tense of 'will' (or 'is going') + 'have (infinitive - 'to')' and a past participle (often an -ed form). Ex. I will have read. He will have eaten. Future Perfect Tense
Normal mood of statements. (Indicates real stuff). Indicative Mood
Indicates non-real or contrary to fact statements or requests. If I were you.... (I'm not you.) He asks that you be here. (Not 'are here'). Subjunctive Mood
Indicates statements that are predicated or conditioned on some other event or condition. English uses the verb form "would" to realize this mood. If he were here, he would eat everything. Conditional Mood
These are adjectives that indicate or demonstrate things. They are this, that, these, those. Demonstrative Adjective
These are pronouns that indicate or demonstrate things. They are this, that, these, those, and are often followed by the word one(s). Demonstrative Pronoun
These are pronouns that refer to a specific person or oject. They are I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, them, etc. Personal Pronouns
These are pronouns that refer back to the subject of the sentence. In English, they always have 'self'/selves attached. They are myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. I bought myself a book. He woke himself up. Reflexive Pronouns
Also 'emphatic pronoun', intensifies or emphasizes a person, object or pronoun. They end in 'self/selves'. They are myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. I myself bought a book. He built the house himself. Intensive Pronoun
This is any noun or phrase that restates another. It is always set off with commas. Ex. John, the man with the bag, is my brother. My friend, Sara, is coming over. Apositive
They are nouns that refer to multiple objects/people but are followed by a singular verb. (group, class, clothing, etc.) Ex. The clothing is in fashion. The group is here. Collective Noun
A word, phrase, or clause that describes a noun or pronoun. Adjective
A word, phrase, or clause that modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, or other adverb. Adverb
The noun or noun phrase to which a pronoun refers. Antecedent
A type of adjective used to indicate specificity. In English, the only articles are the, a, and an. Article
An irregular verb that provides information about another verb. The main ones are to have and to be. Auxiliary Verb
The property of a noun or pronoun that indicates how it relates to other parts of a sentence. The three cases in English are nominative, possessive, and objective. Case
A count noun referring to a group—e.g., staff, band, group. Collective Noun
Indicating that something has a quality to a greater or lesser degree than so Comparative For example, faster, prettier, and more equitable are comparative adjectives. Comparative adverbs usually take more.mething else.
A word or phrase that completes the meaning of a verb. The main types are objects, predicate nouns, and predicate adjectives. Complement
A word or phrase that links words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. Ex: and, or, but Conjunction
An adverb that functions as a conjunction—for example, however, therefore, hence. Conjective Adverb
An abbreviation of a word or phrase formed by omitting letters, usually replacing the omitted letters with an apostrophe—e.g., can’t, we’ll, he’d. Contraction
Significantly more common than alternative forms. Conventional
A noun that can be singular or plural. Count Noun
A modifier, especially at the beginning of a sentence, positioned to modify the wrong word or no word at all—e.g., Leaving home, the weather was nice. Dangler (or dangling modifier)
the person of a clause when the speaker is speaking of himself or herself. First Person
the set of rules one needs to know in order to competently form sentences in a language. Grammar
the mood of a verb when its clause makes a command or a request—e.g., Read me that book. Imperative Mood
an adverb that amplifies the meaning of the adjective it modifies—e.g., very, quite, rather. Intensifier
a short word or phrase that suddenly and briefly expresses an emotion or reaction—e.g., oh, wow, ahem. Interjection
a word or phrase, especially an adjective or adverb, that modifies the meaning of another word or phrase. Modifier
the quality of a verb that expresses the speaker’s attitude toward the likelihood, existence, or desirability of the verb’s action. In English, the three moods are indicative, imperative, and subjunctive. Mood
a noun’s or pronoun’s case when it is the subject or complement of a verb. Nominative Case
a word denoting anything that can be named, usually an object, person, place, idea, or action. Noun
the quality of a noun, pronoun, or verb that indicates whether it refers to a single person or thing or more than one. Number
a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb. Object
a noun’s or pronoun’s case when it is the object of a verb, preposition, or infinitive. Objective case
an -ed or -ing verb form used as an adjective or to form the progressive aspect or perfect tense. Participle
the quality of a clause that indicates whom the speaker is speaking about. Person
A group of two or more words that function together yet have no subject or predicate. Phrase
a noun’s or pronoun’s case when its relationship to another element in the sentence is one of ownership, association, or belonging. Possessive Case
the part of a clause that tells what the subject does, what is done to the subject, or what is being said about the subject. Predicate
a letter or group of letters added to the beginning of a word or word element to change its meaning. Ex: pre-, anti-, pro-, neo- Prefix
a word that links a noun or pronoun to another type of word. Ex: with, of, Preposition
a word that stands in for a noun. Ex: He, She, You, We, They Pronoun
the person of a clause when the speaker is speaking of the person spoken to. Second Person
a group of words expressing a complete thought and containing at least one independent clause. Sentence
generally favored by editors and professional writers in moderately formal to very formal language registers. Standard
the person, place, or thing about which something is said in a clause. Subject
a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word or word element to change its meaning. Suffix
a conventional or customary manner of presenting language. Different publishers, publications, editors, and authors may have different style preferences. Style
the mood of a verb when its clause, which is necessarily dependent, addresses conditions that are contrary to fact—e.g., If I were good at grammar, I’d be a better writer. Subjunctive Mood
indicating that something, when compared with two or more other things, has a quality to the greatest or least degree. For example, fastest, prettiest, and most equitable are superlative adjectives. Superlative adverbs usually take most. Superlative
the quality of a verb that expresses when the action occurred, occurs, or will occur. Tense
the person of a clause when the speaker is speaking of someone who is neither the speaker nor the one spoken to. Third Person
the way in which words and phrases are used by speakers of a language. Usage
a word or phrase denoting an action. Verb
Created by: Mr_Morman